A War on Drugs? Definitely not...


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Current world-wide 'drug policy' is a deception that underpins an ongoing human-rights abuse. A valid conversation cannot occur until the truth is known and acknowledged.





small clockFollowing is a concise but comprehensive explanation of current 'drug policy', commonly referred to as the 'War on Drugs'. It may take approximately forty minutes to read.



A WAR ON DRUGS? NOT AT ALL.




alcohol drinkers, smoker, coffee drinker



Behavioural double standard
Defining of a minority
The 'War on Drugs'
The solution
Conclusion



THE BASICS

The people pictured above are using their drug of choice without the fear of being 'punished' by society. They can use alcohol, tobacco and caffeine freely and without penalty from the criminal justice system. They can possess and use their drug of choice and not be subject to any of the following: arrest, being brought before a court, being fined, having a criminal record imposed upon them, imprisonment or having their assets seized and forfeited. They will not have their employment jeopardised because they happen to use a 'recreational' drug.


The fundamental question

question markWhy are people who happen to use drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine subjected to the criminal justice system for using their drug of choice when the users of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine are not?

The answer given by governments and authorities is that users of drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine are subjected to the criminal justice system in order to punish them for using the substances and as a deterrent to use of the drugs. The justification offered for this strategy is that drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine are dangerous and a unique threat to health and welfare.

Therefore, users are punished and use of the substances is thereby discouraged, with the aim being the protection of health and welfare. The substances are portrayed as a threat to mankind, therefore requiring control and eradication: hence the 'War on Drugs'. The 'flagship' substance in all of this is heroin. The decades-old assertion is that heroin is responsible for the sudden deaths of people who take 'too much'.

red cross indicating wrongThe assertion that current 'drug policy' is a response to harm caused by the use of drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine, is a complete and utter deception. The following two pieces of information are fundamental to understanding why the justification for the 'War on Drugs' is untrue:

Firstly, the two most dangerous drugs in society are undeniably alcohol and tobacco. Alcohol and tobacco are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide annually and a huge burden of disease.

Alcohol is so toxic, it kills bacteria on contact; this is why it is used as a disinfectant. It is associated with organ disease including brain and liver damage and undesirable behaviour due to its dis-inhibitory effects. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, with the child suffering from a "... range of physical, cognitive, developmental and emotional deficits ...". (8)

many cigarette butts

The most dangerous drug in existence, yet it is exempt from 'control'.

When smoked, tobacco introduces scores of cancer-causing chemicals to the body. The consequences of its use fall into three general disease categories: cancer, cardio-vascular and respiratory. It has an association with approximately twenty percent of all deaths annually in the United States of America.

So, based on these facts, if the basic premise offered to justify current 'drug policy' were to be applied equally and without exception, the users of alcohol and tobacco would be subject to the criminal justice system for using the most dangerous drugs in existence. This would be done in order to punish them for using the substances and as a deterrent to use of the drugs.

Secondly, an 'overdose' of heroin (morphine) does not 'stop people breathing'. Heroin is portrayed as the most dangerous of the 'illicit' drugs. However, fatal 'heroin overdose' is a falsehood. It has been conclusively proven that heroin is not dangerous in overdose. When opioids are involved in a drug-related death or adverse event, antique heroin bottleit is because of a combination of drugs leading to heavy sedation and airway obstruction, with the consequence being asphyxiation. This situation can occur as a result of many combinations of substances that do not involve heroin or other opioids.

That heroin is not dangerous is arguably the most important piece of information if one is to truly understand the 'War on Drugs'. Refer to Heroin - the truth on this website for detail.


exclamation mark indicating important pointSo, the phenomenon known as the 'War on Drugs' cannot be about punishing and deterring users of dangerous drugs. Firstly, alcohol and tobacco are the two most dangerous drugs, yet their users and suppliers are not punished by society. Secondly, heroin (morphine) is not a dangerous drug: it causes nausea and constipation. It does not kill. Yet its users are subject to the full brunt of the criminal justice system and the scorn of society. Therefore, regarding the danger of the substances and the treatment of their users, obvious inconsistencies and double standards exist.




CRITICAL POINT - Clearly, the aim of the 'War on Drugs' is not related to reducing harm due to the use of psychoactive substances (drugs). The two most dangerous drugs are alcohol and tobacco, yet the behaviours of using and supplying these two substances (and caffeine) is not addressed by the policy.


CRITICAL POINT - Fatal 'heroin overdose' is a myth, but most importantly, it is a lie. Heroin is falsely portrayed as a uniquely dangerous substance, requiring 'control measures' to prevent and minimise its use.





THE BEHAVIOUR AND MECHANISMS BEHIND A POLICY REGIME


The behavioural double standard

Before we address the true nature of the 'War on Drugs', there is one point of interest that requires discussion and acknowledgement. This is the process that leads to people who are exhibiting a particular behaviour (using their drug of choice), being categorised into two different groups, which are treated in two very different ways.

We are aware that when it comes to 'drug policy', there are two relevant groups of behaviour. The first group is the behaviour of using the drugs alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. This is deemed acceptable and is not legally sanctioned even though two of these drugs are supremely dangerous.

glass of beer on table

Alcohol: an extremely dangerous drug whose supply and use does not attract criminal sanctions.

The second group is the behaviour of using a drug other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. This is deemed unacceptable and carries with it, criminal sanctions. However, both behaviours are fundamentally the same. People are merely using their drug of choice. Some drugs are truly dangerous (alcohol and tobacco) while others are relatively benign (opioids). There is only one type of behaviour being exhibited, whatever the substance. What then, leads to the situation where one type of behaviour (using a drug of choice) is subject to two very different sets of consequences?

In regards to determining the consequences for those people who happen to use substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine, there are two relevant points of interest. Both are related to the self interest of those making the laws that affect themselves and those who vote for them.


Law making and self-interest

Let's say as a hypothetical, that the 'War on Drugs' was to be an actual strategy to reduce and prevent the use of dangerous 'recreational' drugs. It is decided to use criminal sanctions to achieve these goals. Of course, the focus will be on the two most dangerous drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Firstly, laws will be drafted and then enacted to make possession, use, manufacture, distribution and sale of these drugs, a criminal offence. An interesting point is immediately apparent.

Let us assume that eighty percent of politicians use and enjoy alcohol. It is certain that no politician would support the formulation and enacting of laws that make possessing and using their own drug of choice, a criminal offence. They would not allow a situation where their own behaviour would be subject to criminal penalties such as fining, imprisonment and asset forfeiture. It is almost certain that the majority of their colleagues who do not use alcohol would also not support measures such as this. Obviously, this hypothetical would not proceed past the conceptual stage.

Needless to say, if the possession and use of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine were to be made subject to criminal sanctions, society would be largely dysfunctional. Let's say that as a conservative estimate, eighty percent of society would be engaging in criminal behaviour on a daily basis. A situation such as this would not even be suggested as being plausible or desirable.


Voting power

In a democracy, politicians are installed by the populace and ultimately are answerable to the populace. Would a politician in a democracy support the formulation and enactment of laws that would make the drug-taking behaviour (use of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine) of the majority of people and therefore voters, a criminal act? No, they would not. Voters would not re-elect a political party that made their drug-taking behaviour subject to criminal sanctions. They would not vote for such a political party due to self-interest. The mere suggestion of such a policy would result in its proponents being immediately relegated to a position of political irrelevance.



president richard nixonPresident Richard Nixon was the 'father' of the modern day escalation of the 'War on Drugs' (the term is essentially attributable to him). In the early 1970s he announced his "total war" and "all out offensive" on " america's public enemy number one in the United States ". The enemy was described as "dangerous drugs" and "drug abuse".


However, his strategy notably omitted three drugs: the two most dangerous (alcohol and tobacco) and caffeine. The drug-taking behaviour of his administration, its agents and the general populace in respect to the three most popular drugs was therefore exempt from the policy.


Two incorrect notions were also reinforced. Firstly, that the word 'drug' has a negative connotation and primarily defines substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. This invalid and deceptive semantic distinction between the drugs used by the majority and those used by a minority, is a fundamental propaganda tool of the policy regime.


Secondly, use of a drug other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine constitutes 'drug abuse' (which infers a deviant and inherently self-destructive behaviour), rather than merely use of a drug of choice.



Let's focus on the 'behavioural double standard'. We have just discussed how a politician would not be involved in the formulation of legislation that would be harmful to themselves or the majority of society. They would never permit the formulation of legislation that would make criminal, their own drug-taking behaviour or that of the majority of society in respect to alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.

But, as history has shown, the majority are certainly prepared to make criminal, the drug-taking behaviour of those whose drug of choice is other than the three most popular drugs.


Controlled substances: the mechanism for defining a minority

The instrument of law for categorising psychoactive substances (drugs) and thereby the treatment of their respective users in the United States of America, is the Controlled Substances Act. Each country subscribing to the international policy regime (the 'War on Drugs') has its own variant. The purpose of the Controlled Substances Act and its international variants is portrayed as being the protection of health and welfare in regards to psychoactive substance use.

Accordingly, certain drugs are 'controlled' apparently on the basis of their capacity for harm, in order to protect the health and welfare of people. However, the two most dangerous drugs in existence, alcohol and tobacco (and caffeine), are not 'controlled'. So obviously, the purpose of the act cannot be related to addressing harm resulting from psychoactive-substance use.




"There are also a number of substances that are abused but not regulated under the CSA [Controlled Substances Act]. Alcohol and tobacco, for example, are specifically exempt from control by the CSA."


Drug Enforcement Administration (1:p33)




In reality, the act imposes two fundamental circumstances:

bullet pointIt lists the substances and therefore the drug-taking behaviours that are subject to criminal sanctions. The point of interest here is that alcohol, tobacco and caffeine, the drugs of choice of law-makers, their agents (police etc) and the majority of the population, are not included despite meeting the criteria for inclusion. These criteria include: "... high potential for abuse" and "... [having] no currently accepted medical use in treatment ...". (1)

bullet pointBy 'controlling' substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine, the act dictates that they are largely produced, distributed and sold under unregulated, black-market conditions.

So in actual fact, the Controlled Substances Act primarily defines two circumstances. Firstly, the segment of society that is subjected to criminal sanctions for an association with a drug of choice. Secondly, the substances that are supplied by a black market.

The only way in which the Controlled Substances Act and its variants could have any credibility as policies concerned with drug-related harm, would be if the supply and use of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine was addressed in the same manner as 'controlled' drugs.


The 'War on Drugs' is not 'Prohibition'

Current 'drug policy' is commonly referred to as 'prohibition', which was the term given to the alcohol control policy of the early twentieth century in the United States. There is however, one fundamental difference between the two policies. Under U.S. federal 'prohibition' (1920-33), possession and use of alcohol was not subject to criminal sanctions.

pouring liquor down a drain in street during prohibition

New York City Deputy Police Commissioner John A. Leach, right, watching agents pour liquor into sewer following a raid during the height of prohibition

The amendment stated: "... the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States ... for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited". The 'War on Drugs' is fundamentally different to 'prohibition' because it allows for the oppression of substance users via the provision of criminal penalties for possession and use.


Governments and a successful political strategy: the creation of fear

An age-old way to garner support for a political strategy is to create a threat and then appear to provide protection to the masses from the perceived threat. If a war is believed to be a strategy that is desirable from a cynical economic point of view but undesirable from a humanitarian perspective, the illusion of an enemy can be created to provide justification for the conflict.

President Nixon achieved this with great effectiveness in 1971 when he announced that "... public enemy number one ..." was "... drug abuse" (use of drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine). He manufactured the threat and instilled fear in the people. He then announced that he would protect the populace by waging "... total war ..." on the threat. The fact that the threat did not exist and that the 'war' actually had entirely different motivations, would not have been appreciated by the vast majority of the general public.




An inconvenient truth will always exist for proponents of policy that applies criminal sanctions to users of psychoactive substances with the stated aim of protecting health and welfare; the most dangerous drugs are alcohol and tobacco.





The terminology of fear

A fundamental instrument of propaganda is the use of the word 'drug'. The word is used almost exclusively in reference to substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. The drugs of the majority (alcohol, tobacco and caffeine) are generally not referred to as being 'drugs', even though they are. The word, through its association with the drugs of the minority, is given a negative connotation.

This allows a false and self-serving distinction to be made: that alcohol, tobacco and caffeine are not 'drugs' and therefore are a lesser threat to health and welfare. This incorrect distinction allows the majority to believe that their drug-taking behaviour in respect to alcohol, tobacco and caffeine is not what it actually is, that is, drug-taking behaviour. This act of denial (failing to recognise what is obviously the case) allows the majority to justify and ignore the mistreatment of the minority.

Often used in combination with 'drug' is 'abuse'. 'Drug abuse' is a term almost exclusively used in reference to use of drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. The term infers that use of other substances is an act that is somehow deviant, self-destructive and inherently different in nature. In actual fact, use of other drugs entails exactly the same fundamental process as does use of the three 'legal' drugs. The term 'drug abuse' is rarely applied to the use of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. Use of these drugs is portrayed as normal, generally positive in nature and a basic right that any adult can and should be able to exercise.


It's time to recap and summarise


FUNDAMENTAL POINTS RELATING TO CURRENT 'DRUG POLICY'





bullet pointThe 'War on Drugs' is not concerned in any way with preventing the supply and use of drugs that present a danger to people's health and welfare. If the 'War on Drugs' was about controlling the supply and use of drugs on the basis of them being a threat to health and welfare, alcohol and tobacco would be its primary focus. The two most dangerous drugs (alcohol and tobacco) and caffeine are exempt by law from the policy regime.


bullet pointThe truly dangerous drugs (alcohol and tobacco) and caffeine are the drugs of the majority, including importantly, those who make and enforce laws. Drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine are the drugs of a minority of people.


bullet pointIn basic and generalised terms, current 'drug policy' or the 'War on Drugs' is portrayed as a policy device to protect mankind from heroin (morphine). The long-standing myth is that death or injury may occur if 'too much' (an overdose) is taken, due to the effects of morphine on breathing. The concept is however, completely untrue. Heroin is proven not to be dangerous in substantial 'overdose'.








THE TRUE NATURE OF THE WAR ON DRUGS

The so-called 'War on Drugs' is not in any way concerned with reducing harm related to the use of psychoactive substances (drugs) of any kind. If its purpose was to reduce harm due to use of psychoactive substances, obviously, it would address supply and use of alcohol and tobacco. Supply and use of these two drugs and caffeine, is not addressed by the policy.

So obviously, the policy has intentions other than the reduction and prevention of harm from drug use. The 'War on Drugs' is foremost an intentional policy to create and maintain extremely lucrative economic systems based upon the inequitable treatment of a minority. These systems can be categorised into two general income sources:

bullet pointThat derived from the black market. This amounts to hundreds of billions of dollars annually, worldwide.

bullet pointThat derived from government. This amounts to tens of billions of dollars annually, in the U.S. alone.

The so-called 'War on Drugs' is actually an intentional, world-wide economic system of enormous proportions.


THE UNDERCLASS

And what makes these economic systems possible? The creation and maintenance by law, of a minority. A class of people that are lawfully able to be used as a resource and whose treatment enables financial and political gain. These people are those who happen to use a drug other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.

In order to enable and sustain vast economic systems, these people are able by law to be detained, fined, imprisoned, have their assets seized and not be entitled to a regulated and safe supply of their drug of choice, amongst other things. This occurs simply because they are a minority and it is therefore politically achievable to impose upon them things that would never be imposed upon the law-makers, their agents and the majority of the population.

enforcement officer arresting person

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officer detaining person during 'Operation Pipeline Express', 2011

Of course, the double standard that underpins and enables the phenomenon is that the drug-taking behaviour (in respect to alcohol, tobacco and caffeine) of those who make the laws and carry out the arresting, imprisoning and asset seizure, is not subject to criminal sanctions. Again, the 'War on Drugs' has nothing whatsoever to do with the nature of any substance or its capacity for harm; substance use is merely a convenient way of defining those who comprise the economic resource.




CRITICAL POINT - Primarily, the 'War on Drugs' is about money, whether it is derived from the black market or government. It is also about political advantage. It is not concerned in any way with preventing or reducing harm related to the consumption of psychoactive substances (drugs) of any kind.


CRITICAL POINT - The creation of a minority legally able to be exploited for financial and political gain is achieved by the application of criminal sanctions to the behaviours surrounding drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.





THE DRUGS THEMSELVES

In the 'War on Drugs', substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine play the following roles:

bullet pointThe drugs are simply a way of defining a minority. Drug use itself cannot be used as a way of defining those who are to be arrested, fined, imprisoned or have their assets seized etc., as the vast majority of people use drugs (alcohol, tobacco and caffeine). Therefore, the strategy used to define the minority is the type of drug used.

Opioid users are the obvious example. A very small number of people use opioids due to their unpleasant side effects: nausea and constipation. These people are portrayed as an undesirable segment of the population and as engaging in a uniquely dangerous and unnacceptable behaviour: use of a drug other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. A small number of 'demonised' people has no political power, therefore it is possible to treat them in a way that the majority would not accept being treated themselves.

bullet pointAn 'enemy' to be feared is created, in this case, drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. In reality, alcohol and tobacco are the most dangerous 'recreational' drugs by far. However, to create an 'enemy', drugs other than these two (and caffeine) are falsely portrayed as being uniquely dangerous and therefore to be feared.

bullet pointDemand will never cease. Demand for psychoactive substances will continue regardless of controls put on them. This ensures the ongoing viability of the economic systems built around their supply and use.




The 'War on Drugs' is not a policy device to reduce the supply and use of dangerous psychoactive substances. It is a cynical system of contrived economic enterprise based on the oppression of a minority. The drugs themselves are merely the commodity that happens to be convenient as a way of defining the minority. The minority is thereby arrested, fined, imprisoned and in some countries, executed, using the false justification of the particular drug they use.





A DIFFERENT NAME IS NEEDED

Having determined that the 'War on Drugs' is actually an intentional economic and political strategy, an appropriate term should be used. A discussion using a term that is deceptive (the 'War on Drugs') is pointless. The acronym that will be used from this point on is:



EDROM




Economy based on the Drug-Related Oppression of a Minority.


(The minority referred to is those who use a drug other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.)





THE MONEY, WHERE IT COMES FROM AND WHO BENEFITS


MONEY FROM THE BLACK MARKET

It is basic economic theory that if demand for a product exists and the supply is restricted, the price increases. In regards to psychoactive substances, the principle is equally relevant. Demand for drugs of any kind will remain strong regardless of any controls placed upon their supply. This situation occurred during alcohol 'prohibition' and led to the involvement of organised crime in the supply of alcohol due to the large tax-free profits able to be made.

vast pile of confiscated 'drug' money

$205 Million 'drug' money seized by the Mexican Police and the Drug Enforcement Administration in Mexico city - largest single 'drug' cash seizure in history (2007)

A 2014 report estimated the amount spent on cannabis, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine in the U.S. alone, to be $100 billion annually. (2) As far as the worldwide amount spent on 'illicit' drugs of all kinds, the figure must be truly staggering.


Who benefits from the black market?

Beneficiaries of the black market in drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine may be broadly categorised as follows:

bullet pointThose who are prepared to risk criminal penalties including imprisonment and even execution to profit from the supply of substances. The endeavour can be lucrative, with substantial tax-free profits possible, but obviously for some, it can entail substantial risks. There are always those who will accept the inherent risks to engage in such an enterprise.

If we remove the double standard, what is the fundamental difference between a supplier of alcohol and a supplier of opioids? Absolutely nothing. Both parties are supplying a central nervous system depressant drug. One (alcohol) is far more dangerous than the other (opioids), but they are both drugs of choice taken voluntarily by people for their psychoactive effects.

bullet pointThose who form part of the 'legitimate' economy but who benefit from the money that the 'illegitimate' or 'black' economy produces. The black market in 'illicit' substances generates enormous profits. Much of this money is subject to laundering processes and is then deposited in banks as 'legitimate' money.


MONEY DERIVED FROM GOVERNMENT

As regards money derived from government, the EDROM is quite simply a massive re-distribution system for government money, justified as a 'war' to control and defeat a fictitious enemy. The 'enemy' is portrayed as psychoactive substances (drugs) other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine and the people who use them.

However, the substances themselves are inanimate objects: it is the people who exhibit the behaviours of supplying and using them who are subject to exploition and oppression. The people that use the substances are portrayed in a patronising manner as needing 'treatment' or punishment for doing something that is deemed 'wrong' or deviant. In fact, they are exhibiting exactly the same behaviour as most of those who arrest and imprison them: they are merely using a drug of choice.

Enforcement agencies are charged with the task of apprehending and supposedly punishing people apparently on the basis of the drug they have used or supplied. Enormous amounts of public money are provided to sustain these activities. But as noted previously, these 'control measures' are highly selective as regards who is subject to them.

Only those whose drug of choice is other than alcohol, tobacco or caffeine are subject to criminal sanctions due to a simple association with a psychoactive substance. The selective nature of the policy demonstrates that it is merely a contrived justification for the spending of government money for job creation and profit motives and the political advantage this brings.

american flag beind wire fence

No person in America is imprisoned due to lawful possession or supply of alcohol, tobacco or caffeine

Since the industrial revolution and the advent of mechanisation, there has been a huge reduction in the amount of manual labour required to produce goods and services. With increasing population and decreasing demand for manual labour, a way of supporting those who were surplus to the economys' requirements was required to prevent a continuing situation of humanitarian disaster. Welfare was thereby introduced. In applicable societies, the 'state' (government and its agencies) assists monetarily, those who cannot support themselves via employment or economic enterprise.

In many societies however, the distribution of welfare can be dishonest and selective. Welfare to the poor and unemployed is portrayed as being a financial liability and therefore to be minimised, whilst at the same time, money is generously distributed to others under the guise of an accommodating strategy. These strategies attempt to hide the fact that the money being distributed is indeed, 'welfare'. One of these strategies is unfortunately, war. Hence the 'War on Drugs'.

In Australia in 2009-10, it is estimated that $1.123 billion was spent on enforcement of 'drug' policy. (3a:p33) What does this mean? It simply means that a number of Australians were employed to hunt down fellow human beings and arrest, make formally criminal and imprison many of them. It is to be noted that many of those involved in the arresting, criminalising and imprisoning of others, apparently on the basis of psychoactive drug use, use the two most dangerous drugs in existence: alcohol and tobacco (and caffeine).

The (false) justification for this treatment of others is that it is a necessary measure designed to protect health and welfare. The actual purpose of the policy is job creation, profits and the political advantage this brings. An astonishing amount of money is devoted to the EDROM each year in the United States, with "... a total of more than $31.1 billion dollars ... requested for Federal drug control programs for 2017". (3b) A considerable sum is also spent by the states, with the total amount spent comprising many tens of billions of dollars.


Who benefits from government money?

The number and nature of people that benefit from the money expended on the EDROM is significant and varied. Following is a brief outline of the mechanisms and beneficiaries of the policy regime:

bullet pointLaw enforcement organisations. The obvious example is the Drug Enforcement Administration in the United States, as it is solely concerned with enforcing 'drug control' laws. It is part of the U.S. Department of Justice, and employs "... more than 9000 men and women ...". (5) In 2015, DEA agents arrested 31,027 people in the United States alone. (4) It had an annual budget for the financial year 2016 of $2.98 billion. (5) The organisation has an international presence with "... 89 offices in 68 (2016) countries around the world". (5)

Imagine a world in which there was a government organisation who's sole purpose was to forcibly involve in the criminal justice system, people who chose to be involved in the supply of alcohol, tobacco or caffeine. Obviously this would only ever be a hypothetical scenario. It would not be seriously considered, as apart from being untenable, it would rightfully be identified as a human-rights abuse. This situation is however, happening right now in regards to currently 'illicit' drugs.

Enforcement officers detaining person

Arrest during 'Operation Mallorca', 2005

Law enforcement organisations worldwide are involved in an ongoing human-rights abuse as part of their work. This is their enforcement of so-called 'drug laws'. This involves them forcibly involving in the criminal justice system, those who happen to be associated with substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. As an indicator of the inequity of the situation, consider the hypothetical scenario of a law-enforcement officer being arrested for possession of their drug of choice, be it alcohol, tobacco or caffeine. This would obviously be an untenable and undesirable situation from their and society's perspective.

bullet pointThe prison industry. In the U.S. in 2015, 92,000 people were in federal prisons due to "drug offenses". (6:p15) This was almost 50% of prisoners. The average sentence length for 'drug offences' was an alarming 11.3 years. (7:p6) Categorised on the basis of race, "three quarters of ... drug offenders were black or Hispanic". (7:p3) In state-run prisons in 2015, "twenty-five percent of female ... prisoners (23,500 persons) and 15% of male ... prisoners (182,700 persons) were sentenced for drug offenses". (6:p14)

This is a staggering total of 298,200 people imprisoned in one country alone on the basis of their possession, use and/or involvement in supply of drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. Mass imprisonment of people purely on the basis of an association with a drug of choice, something taken as a basic right in respect to alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.

Woman in prison cell

Image: Officer Bimblebury

But the drugs themselves only serve as the false justification for involving a minority in the criminal justice system and thereby one of its mechanisms, imprisonment. The imprisonment of these people helps sustain the prison 'industry'. This is the obvious and obscene human tragedy of current 'drug' policy.



If the 'War on Drugs' was actually what it is portrayed as being, the assets of alcohol and tobacco companies would be confiscated and their executives jailed for lengthy terms.



bullet pointPeople and organisations that supply goods and services to those involved in the EDROM. The resources required to enable the functioning of the Drug Enforcement Administration and the prison industry for example, are considerable. The businesses which supply them with goods and services are numerous and diverse. From uniforms and weapons to asset construction and information technology, the opportunities for business are significant.

bullet pointThe 'drug treatment' sector. The mandated 'treatment' of people from the court system is now essentially an industry. The 'crime' that has led people to be forced into 'treatment' is simply use of a drug other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.

bullet pointThe drug testing sector. The testing and detection of substances for employment-related and enforcement purposes has evolved into a lucrative industry.

(This list is by no means conclusive.)





THE PERFECT BUSINESS MODEL

The mechanism that underpins the EDROM could be described as the perfect business model. In relation to enforcement agencies, their task is to reduce supply. When supply is reduced for a commodity for which there is constant demand, the price increases. The higher the market price, the greater the incentive for people to supply the commodity, especially in light of a zero-tax environment.

Thereby, a guaranteed economy of 'illicit' drug supply is created and along with it, a perpetual supply of people to arrest and imprison. Enforcement agencies, by reducing supply, are actually creating work for themselves. This simple economic cause and effect scenario provides the perfect, self-perpetuating economic model. If all those supplying 'illicit' substances ceased their activities, the agencies would be instantly unemployed and there would be no justification for the outlay of vast amounts of public money.

In a document listing important organisational statistics, and under the heading "Revenue Denied", it is stated that the Drug Enforcement Administration "stripped drug trafficking organizations of approximately $33.1 billion in revenues through the seizure of both assets and drugs" between 2005 and 2015. (5) Asset 'forfeiture' laws enable governments to carry out apparent retribution against the 'enemy' by forcibly taking money, assets and unsold drugs.

US Coast Guard personnel with seized cocaine

US Coast Guard personnel with seized cocaine

For those who benefit from the EDROM, interdiction (hunting down and seizing 'illicit' drugs) achieves the following:

bullet pointIt portrays substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine as a unique threat to the populace due to the existence of a government led supply reduction strategy with the stated aims of protecting people's health and welfare. In actual fact, the most dangerous drugs are alcohol and tobacco.

bullet pointIt provides the basis for thousands of jobs and related economic activity, sustained by huge amounts of public money, along with an apparently valid justification for such activity.

bullet pointIt provides the illusion that the 'war' is being successful and that there are tangible results for the vast amount of public money spent. In actual fact, only a fraction of the total supply of 'illicit' drugs is intercepted.

bullet pointAbove all else, it perpetuates the trade in 'illicit' substances by keeping their market price high due to supply reduction. The continuance of the activity is essential for those sustained by it.




CRITICAL POINT - The modern day 'War on Drugs' is not a 'failure' or 'failed policy'. It was never intended to control psychoactive substances (drugs) of any kind due to harm resulting from their use. Its aims are political advantage predominately through the distribution of government money, and a highly profitable black market.


It is and has been, an outstanding success in relation to its true motivations. This is why it continues. Those who profit and are sustained by the policy either politically or monetarily have no desire for its ending, irrespective of the fact that it is a human-rights abuse.





THE BENEFITS OF BEING 'LEGAL'

Current 'drug policy' suits the alcohol, tobacco and caffeine industries admirably. They (particularly in the case of alcohol and caffeine) are able to benefit from essentially unrestricted advertising and marketing of their products. They are able to freely link their products with sport and other types of entertainment and gain widespread coverage with little in the way of regulation.

racing car with beverage manufacturer logos

Image: Morio

The greatest advantage for the 'legal' drug industry is that supply and use of alternative drugs is subject to criminal sanctions. It also serves them well by portraying drugs that are an alternative to alcohol, tobacco and caffeine, as more dangerous and socially unacceptable. It is the perfect commercial situation for the alcohol, tobacco and caffeine industries.

It could be suggested that their greatest fear is that drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine become freely available. Market share of the currently 'legal' drugs would be threatened by increased competition. Increased regulation from a policy and regulatory regime that treated substances according to their actual danger would also be a less than ideal situation for the alcohol and tobacco industries in particular.


WHY DOES THE EDROM CONTINUE?

The policy regime that above all else is a human-rights abuse, continues essentially unabated. Following are some reasons why:

bullet pointPolitical advantage. The policy is politically advantageous on two main fronts. Firstly, it allows politicians to give the impression that they are protecting their constituents from an 'enemy'. However, the enemy is contrived and the 'war' to fight it has different motives altogether.

Secondly, the 'state' is able to dispense money and create jobs and profits using the contrived 'war' as the justification. The money is able to be justified as necessary expenditure required to fight the 'enemy'. The strategy therefore largely escapes being correctly identified as 'welfare' and blatant largess.

bullet pointMoney from government. Notably, those employed in law enforcement and those who support them, benefit from billions of dollars of public money annually in the U.S. alone. A constant supply-reduction campaign, along with demand that will never cease, ensures the price of substances remains high. This guarantees the continuance of the trade. The result is a self-sustaining and perpetual false 'war' that employs and sustains thousands of people.

bullet pointMoney from the black market. Those involved in the black market for drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine benefit from a multi billion-dollar trade. Profits in a legal and regulated market would be far less than those found in the present black-market situation. Money from the black market also finds its way to the regular economy and benefits those involved in 'legitimate' financial endeavours.

The 'War on Drugs' continues primarily because it is financially beneficial to many people. It has direct parallels with the 'Military Industrial Complex', where war or the threat of war provides a justification for massive government expenditure. This results in a situation where many people become reliant on the funding and subsequently it is difficult to cease or scale back the process.




SUMMARY


bullet pointCurrent 'drug policy' is not about the control and eradication of 'recreational' drug use due to the substances being a threat to health and welfare. If it was a response to a threat to health and welfare due to the use of psychoactive substances, it would apply primarily to the users and suppliers of alcohol and tobacco.


bullet pointThe EDROM is primarily about the acquisition of money, whether it is from the black market or public money from government. It sustains tens of thousands of jobs with tens of billions of dollars of government money annually, in the U.S. alone. It is in terms of government money, a distribution system founded on a human-rights abuse.


bullet pointIt is not 'failed' policy. It is entirely intentional and extraordinarily successful in terms of its actual aims, which are monetary gain and political advantage. It continues because it is successful regarding these aims.


bullet pointThe EDROM results in a minority being treated in ways that the majority would never accept being treated themselves. The majority would not accept being subject to criminal sanctions for using or supplying their drugs of choice (alcohol, tobacco and caffeine) or being denied a legal and regulated supply of these drugs.








LIFE AFTER THE 'WAR ON DRUGS'

There is only one humane, logical and sensible strategy to end the current destructive madness. This is a return to the regulated manufacture and sale of all psychoactive substances. They would be available to people of 'legal' age at appropriate retail outlets. This might best be achieved in an incremental way, substance by substance. This would allow people to become accustomed to the situation and realise that the functioning of society would not be negatively affected.

For most people, the usual reaction to the suggestion of 'legalisation' is an onset of fear. This is purely due to an ingrained perception of threat and the resultant fear that has been instilled by decades of propaganda. A simple response is as follows:

bullet pointCurrently, the two most dangerous drugs (alcohol and tobacco) and caffeine, are freely available to people of 'legal' age from appropriate retail outlets. Society functions normally and no-one is concerned. Those whose drug of choice is alcohol, tobacco or caffeine, can use their drug without fear of being forcibly involved in the criminal justice system.

The mere suggestion that users of any of these three drugs be forcibly involved in the criminal justice system as a response to their drug use, would rightfully be dismissed. The scenario would never and should never eventuate. Therefore:


"No person should be subject to criminal sanctions due to the act of using or being involved in the regulated supply of a 'recreational' drug, whatever the nature of the substance"


bullet pointCurrent 'drug policy' or the 'War on Drugs' results in a highly profitable black market in drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. Therefore:


"All psychoactive substances, without exception, must be supplied by a legal and regulated market"


bullet pointCurrent 'drug policy' or the 'War on Drugs' acts as a mechanism to distribute government money for political gain. Therefore:


"The distribution of government money should never be based upon the inequitable and inhumane treatment of a minority"


bullet pointThe vast majority of currently 'illicit' drugs (including heroin), are not as dangerous as alcohol or tobacco. The 'War on Drugs' is not related to the control of any psychoactive substance as a response to its effects on health and welfare. If it was a response to a threat to health and welfare posed by the use of drugs, its policy mechanisms including criminal sanctions would apply primarily to the supply and possession of alcohol and tobacco. Therefore:


"Currently 'illicit' drugs are almost exclusively less dangerous to health and welfare than alcohol and tobacco. Society as a whole must be honest about the nature of all drugs and the right of people to use substances irrespective of their nature and effect on health and welfare"


Current 'drug policy' has its roots firmly in the oppression of people in order to facilitate the acquisition of money. It can only ever be the vehicle for ulterior motives, none of which are positive in nature.


A FLAWED AND UNACCEPTABLE COMPROMISE

The situation in Portugal is often cited as a model for other countries to adopt. This paradigm is however, a flawed compromise. The manufacture and sale of substances other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine remains illegal. This model retains the black market. The flaws in this approach for users of 'illicit' drugs, is that manufacture of the substances and therefore their quality, is not regulated and the price is set by black-market prerogatives. The model retains a fundamentally inequitable aspect of current policy: users of drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine are denied a legal and regulated supply of their drug of choice.


WAYS THAT CHANGE CAN HAPPEN

Administratively, two basic actions would allow change:

bullet pointAbolishment of the three 'drug control' treaties that obligate signatories to participate in the EDROM. These are the Single Convention on Narcotic drugs of 1961 (as amended by the 1972 protocol), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988.

bullet pointChanges to the Controlled Substances Act in the U.S. and its international variants. The basic drug types must be rescheduled to a classification that does not involve 'control' by involvement of users and suppliers in the criminal justice system. For the Controlled Substances Act and its variants to be relevant and functional on a humane basis, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine must be included. A category that contains 'recreational' drugs of all types must be created and this category must not attract criminal sanctions.


IMPEDIMENTS TO CHANGE

That the EDROM has to cease is beyond debate. Exploiting a minority for financial and political advantage is obviously unacceptable. We have discussed how the EDROM is an intentional strategy to facilitate political advantage through the spending of government money and the maintenance of a highly profitable black market in psychoactive substances. All of these factors are financially beneficial to many people. We have also discussed how the EDROM has nothing whatsoever to do with preventing and reducing harm from the use of psychoactive substances of any kind.

The dominant theme underpinning current arguments for the cessation of the policy regime is that it is a 'failure'. It is commonly claimed to be a 'failure' due to its cost and the fact that use of drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine continues. However, to call for the EDROM to be ceased on the basis that it is a 'failure', is either a dishonest or naive argument. Why? Because the EDROM is not a failure in regards to its true motivations.

black armoured assault vehicle

The 'Drug War' a failure? The manufacturers of this equipment may not agree.

As has been discussed, it is an outstanding success in relation to its actual aims. These are political advantage and the acquisition of money. The actual and primary impediment to the cessation of the EDROM is the loss of money by those currently sustained by it. Those who have no wish for the policy to end are:

bullet pointPeople who are sustained financially by the policy regime. These people see the cessation of the policy primarily in terms of loss of money either from the collapse of the black market or the removal of government spending. This may take the form of loss of employment or profits. These people can be expected to lobby aggressively for the EDROM to continue.

bullet pointPeople who are sustained politically by the policy regime. There are many forms of political advantage offered by the EDROM, all of which politicians would be highly reluctant to relinquish. It provides a pretext for the distribution of government money, which translates as jobs and profits. The pretext is the portrayal of politicians as providing protection to the populace from an 'enemy', providing them with a basis on which to court votes on an agenda of community 'protection'.

Regarding the possibility of political impetus for change and the ways it might come about, it is highly unlikely that politicians will ever admit that the policy is fraudulent and that they have lied about its true motivations for decades. To admit to the true nature of the EDROM would be extremely damaging in terms of the public's perception of their governance structures.

It must end however, and only open, honest discussion and acknowledgement of the issues will allow this to happen.




The 'debate' about whether drugs other than alcohol, tobacco and caffeine should be 'legalised' is a misleading and dishonest conversation. The more relevant suggestion is that since current 'drug policy' is allegedly about protecting health and welfare, it follows that supply and possession of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine should also be 'criminalised'. This simple and obvious suggestion instantly exposes the fraudulent basis of the policy regime.





HONESTY ABOUT THE DISTRIBUTION OF GOVERNMENT MONEY

It would be ideal for society (including government and the populace) to be honest about the distribution of government money and its role in the economy. One of the greatest impediments to ending the EDROM would be the major reduction of money flowing from government and the subsequent loss of employment and profits.

An example would be that if all prisoners in the U.S. with a 'drug' conviction were released, federal prison populations would be instantly halved. Obviously, this would have major ramifications for the workforce and those involved in supporting the prisons. The political difficulties arising in a situation such as this would be substantial.

There is no doubt that ending the EDROM will result in a large reduction in jobs that were previously justified as being necessary to fight the 'War on Drugs'. The question is: are these people to become unemployed or redeployed? Whatever the strategy, the distribution of government money should never be based on a human-rights abuse as is currently the case with 'drug policy'.


CONCLUSION

There will hopefully come a time when the human race becomes civilized enough to not prey on each other by way of a contrived obscenity that has been described here as the EDROM or as it is popularly known, the 'War on Drugs'. No society that participates can dare call itself civilised or humane. It is a complex, self-perpetuating and abhorrent phenomenon that bares witness to man's inhumanity to man.

There is an answer and that is simply to stop it.




REFERENCES

1. Drugs of abuse. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2011) PDF document.

2. How big is the u.s. market for illegal drugs?. RAND Corporation. (2014) PDF document.

3a. Monograph No. 24: Government drug policy expenditure in Australia – 2009/10. DPMP Monograph Series. Ritter A, McLeod R, & Shanahan M, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (Sydney). (2013) PDF document.

3b. Fact sheet: administration’s drug control budget represents balanced approach to public health and public safety. US Federal Government. Web page.
Address- https://obamawhitehouse. archives. gov/ the- press- office/ 2016/02/09/ fact- sheet- administrations- drug- control- budget- represents- balanced.

4. Dea domestic arrests. Drug Enforcement Administration. Web page.
Address- https://www.dea.gov/ resource- center/ statistics. shtml #arrests.

5. Dea fact sheet. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2016) PDF document.
Address- https://www.dea.gov/ docs/ factsheet. PDF_ (2016).

6. Prisoners in 2015. Carson E, Anderson E, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. (2016) PDF document.
Address- https://www.bjs.gov/ content/ pub/ pdf/ p15. pdf.

7. Drug offenders in federal prison: estimates of characteristics based on linked data. Taxy S, Samuels J, Adams W (Urban Institute), Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. (2015) PDF document.

8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (fasd). Alcohol and Drug Foundation (Australia). (2016) Web page.
Address- http://adf.org.au/ insights/ fetal- alcohol- spectrum- disorder- fasd/




five drug types