File Name: jews and blacks in america david brion davis .zip
The massive tome encompassed pages—it was a time when university presses were not as inclined to urge junior faculty to slash manuscripts as they are today—and earned its young author, David Brion Davis, the Pulitzer Prize.
With that, then, let us consider this, the first of these endeavors. This chapter opens by pointing out a fundamental contradiction in early American values that prized liberty yet perpetuated slavery. This contradiction is, Davis says, a paradox. American society rested on the irresolvable contradiction between celebrating freedom and denying freedom. This contradiction might reflect the difference between ideal and reality. Europeans viewed the New World as a wilderness of paradise unspoiled by the corrupting institutions and materialisms of Europe.
But the status of slavery in this new land remained uncertain. America may have initiated a new form of slavery with the transatlantic trade. African slaves arrived in the New World as early as ; they played an instrumental role in the commerce of Spain and Portugal. Competition between all maritime European powers made the slave trade more lucrative. Slavery was indispensable to the economic growth of the New World.
This era saw another paradox: narratives of progress and enlightenment incorporating the antiquity and backwardness of slavery.
What was once considered a mild and domestic institution slavery became a harsh and depraved global phenomenon. Slavery grew exponentially. If history was progressive, America retrogressed. European thinkers interpreted progress in different ways, and their interpretations clashed with justifications for slavery. George Bancroft saw it as a flourishing of democratic principles. These views about progress reveal inconsistencies in American thought and theory that accepted or avoided the problem of slavery.
A common logic employed to reconcile these contradictions was that selfish European merchants, striving to get rich quick, exploited the promise and possibility of the otherwise uncorrupted New World. According to this logic, Europeans imposed an evil institution upon a virgin land. Another line of logic held that in the process of enslaving Africans, Americans had at least done Africans the service of civilizing them.
Such lines of investigation, when cautiously pursued, have brought rewarding insights into the relations between ideology and social structure. But while these newer approaches have revealed weaknesses in the traditional teleological view of the antislavery crusade, they have tended to divert attention from the fact that Negro slavery in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries posed a genuine moral problem that reflected deep tensions in Western culture and involved the very meaning of America.
During the American slavery debates of the nineteenth-century, abolitionists argued that American slavery was unique—harsher—than its predecessors, whereas proslavery forces argued that American slavery was similar to other forms of bondage throughout history. This chapter distinguishes between slavery as a legal status and slavery as an institution of people and economies.
This chapter argues that there is a definite continuity between ancient and modern slavery. This chapter suggests that, although American slavery took on a distinctive form, the most striking forms of bondage in America had their origins in other eras and regions.
Laws regulating slavery seem to have appeared after the gradual creation of slavery. Roman law treated slaves as both a person and a thing. Medieval jurists often confused slavery and serfdom.
In Greece, slave populations were high and slave communities were widely distributed. Slavery was integral to Roman society as well. Greece bred slaves for Rome. In most of Europe, slavery declined and then disappeared with the rise of feudal society. Masters could kill these slaves without penalty. These slaves nevertheless enjoyed certain rights to property.
Other European nations borrowed slave trading tactics from Italians. African children were kept as pets in Italian Renaissance courts.
Portuguese navigators gathered slaves from Africa and unsettled what was then an Arab monopoly on African trade. Slavery functioned better in open-trade societies than in closed, feudal societies.
Early slavery was not necessarily race-based, but neither were racial distinctions wholly absent. Only in America was the line between freeman and slave drawn so sharply. Slave markings were first used to identify ownership and to deter and prevent escapes.
A criterion for measuring the harshness of different slave systems is to compare their treatment of manumission. Manumission was common in Greece and Rome despite harsher slave exploitation there.
Manumission counts rose across the Western world during the Middle Ages. Most Western societies were especially harsh towards slaves who sought to attain freedom on their own. They were also harsh toward those who assisted runaway or fugitive slaves. Slaves traditionally carried the label of lazy. No slave society was the same as that which flourished in the American South and in the West Indies.
But the basic characteristics of slavery in these regions were not so different from that of predecessors. What abolitionists exposed about slavery in the American South was probably generally true of slave societies predating the American South.
The fundamental contradiction of slavery is calling a human something that is not human—that is, relegating a human to the status of property with no will of its own. We have found no evidence of so-called abolitionism in ancient society. Slavery was a way of life. Nevertheless, biblical and classical texts informed antislavery movements centuries later. The Old Testament does not explicitly object to slavery as an institution.
Despite common assumptions, there is no evidence that Plato opposed slavery. He simply forbade enslavement as a method of punishing citizens. Plato supplied the idea that inferiority, racial or otherwise, was a valid basis for slavery. He also saw the master-slave relationship as a small-scale instance of the hierarchical relations of society writ large. Aristotle pointed out that masters were not sovereigns because they were subject to the coercion and compulsion of other sovereigns.
Slavery, then, was not pure tyranny, but it lacked rationality. Aristotle tended toward the theory that slaves were deficient in soul and beauty. He was bothered by social and not putatively natural distinctions. For Plato and Aristotle, slavery was a system whereby enlightened men cared for and controlled their inferiors. They celebrated universal reason and human brotherhood. For them, philosophers were the only free men.
Freedom, accordingly, was for the elite. Christianity emphasized the virtues of slavery as humility and patience and put forth the idea that one was right to become a slave to his savior Jesus Christ.
The idea of subservience to Christ led some early Christians to manumit their slaves. This message meant an erasure of social distinctions.
Some theologians, however, insisted on the difference between spiritual and physical slavery. Nevertheless, Christian emphases on equality led to gradual forms of emancipation. But Christianity was not alone in this trend; for Muslim societies saw the same or similar phenomena. One day they would come to think of slavery as sin. Everything on earth, including slavery, was divinely inspired, and if it were not divinely inspired—that is, if it did not comport with natural law—then other things such as the family or the church might not be divinely inspired.
The doctrine of original sin tied in with ideas about slavery. Augustine and others urged Christians to treat slaves as brothers in Christ. Slavery could not be a positive good because that would imply that sin is a positive good. The canonists argued that slavery was consistent with natural law only insofar as it applied to sinful men. This idea did not quite lead to the idea that slaves were naturally inferior, but it offered precedent for that idea.
A slave of a Jewish master generally could not be baptized. The church endeavored to prevent Christians from becoming slaves themselves. In the fifteenth century, the pope threatened to excommunicate slave traders dealing in Christian slaves. Marriage, however, entailed certain rights and obligations that flew in the face of the idea of a sovereign master.
That is because marriage was and is regulated by contract. Generally, the church urged slave marriages because such a union was sanctioned by God. The Reformation had little effect on the institution of slavery. The idea still held in Christian thinking that all people, including slaves, should accept their station in life as ordained by God.
The revival of classical learning during the Renaissance and beyond served to shift this mode of thinking. A great contradiction developed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: that between the ideal of liberty on the one hand, and mercantilist enslavement policies on the other. As the idea that slavery was not sanctioned by natural law gained currency, justifications for slavery veered toward expediency or necessity as authorizing concepts.
Slavery as a matter of public policy became more important in the seventeenth century when military and economic power between nations became more important. Augustine and Calvin justified human bondage; Grotius and Arminius did the opposite. Grotius divorced natural law from divine will, claiming that it was accessible via human reason. Rather than defend or attack the institution of slavery, Grotius cast slavery as a phenomenon customarily practiced.
He could not defend the absolute rights of masters over slaves. For Hobbes slavery was inevitable in systems of power relations.
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Charlestonian Jews have been characterised as the pre-eminent American community of the antebellum period, composed of the most educated, refined and prosperous individuals, who were accepted politically and socially into the fabric of white middle class society. Likewise the Jewish community embraced Charlestonian culture in its entirety, fought in wars, was loyal to the nation, the state and the city and held excellent relations with white Charlestonians. How far is this description accurate and to what extent is the particularity of Charleston's economy and society reason for this apparent cultural concurrence? I will argue that the characteristics of the Charleston Jewish community in the antebellum period stem from a mixture of the internal dynamics of the community and from Charleston's location as an eastern seaport linking the Atlantic world to Europe, its symbolic and cultural position as the cosmopolitan capital of southern society, and the fact of its dependence on plantation slavery and on the subjugation of African-Americans. I will also utilise some specific primary and published materials: mainly wills, diaries and genealogical material.
Essential Reading If you want to know the history of chattel slavery, and its eventual destruction in the Caribbean and the US, Inhuman Bondage is the book for you. Insightful, detailed, and Read full review. A history of slavery in the Western hemisphere, from the African and Mediterranean antecedents, including Biblical arguments, to abolition, including the Haitian revolution the only successful slave
Leonard Dinnerstein, Saul S. Jews and the American Slave Trade. New Brunswick, N.
Though historians continue to debate the numbers, it now seems probable that from twelve to fifteen million Africans were forcibly shipped out from their continent by sea. Millions more perished in African wars or raids for enslavement and in the deadly transport of captives from the interior to slave markets on the coast. The participants in the Atlantic slave system included Arabs, Berbers, scores of African ethnic groups, Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Dutch, Jews, Germans, Swedes, French, English, Danes, white Americans, Native Americans, and even thousands of New World blacks who had been emancipated or were descended from freed slaves but who then became slaveholding farmers or planters themselves. Today it is both remarkable and deeply disturbing to discover that this Atlantic slave system evoked little if any meaningful protest until the late eighteenth century.
Jewish views on slavery are varied both religiously and historically. Judaism 's ancient and medieval religious texts contain numerous laws governing the ownership and treatment of slaves. Texts that contain such regulations include the Hebrew Bible , the Talmud , the 12th-century Mishneh Torah by rabbi Maimonides , and the 16th-century Shulchan Aruch by rabbi Yosef Karo.
Philip D. Morgan, D avid B rion D avis. Challenging the Boundaries of Slavery. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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