File Name: inclusive fitness theory and eusociality .zip
Contrary to the expectations of kin selection theory, intracolony relatedness in eusocial insects is often low. We examined the idea that associations of low relatedness high genetic variability may be advantageous because of negative frequency-dependent selection on common host phenotypes by rapidly evolving parasites and pathogens. Using the natural host-parasite system of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris and its intestinal trypanosome Crithidia bombi , we investigated the transmission properties of parasites in host groups. Within naturally infested nests and in artificially constructed groups of workers, prevalence of infestation increased with time of exposure Table 1.
Inclusive fitness in finite populations—effects of heterogeneity and synergy. Evolution, — Hamilton's Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions. Journal of Theoretical Biology Krupp, Peter D.
Mathematical models based on direct fitness calculations may be able to explain important aspects of social evolution in insects. Social organization is a fundamental feature of many organisms, including humans. How can genes that make their carriers sterile be a successful evolutionary invention? Such genes can only survive in a population if they are expressed in some of the individuals that carry them, but not in others. Then these genes may be passed on if the workers preferentially help other members of the population that also carry these genes but do not express them i. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that the genes responsible for the forms of helping behavior displayed by worker insects can successfully spread in a population if the workers are sufficiently closely related to the individuals they help.
Metrics details. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory EIFT synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities. EIFT helps to promote an interdisciplinary cross fertilization of the understanding of synergy by, for example, allowing to describe the role for division of labor in the emergence of social synergies, providing an integrated framework for the study of both, biological evolution of social behavior and economic market dynamics.
In evolutionary biology , inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. Hamilton in An individual's own child, who carries one half of the individual's genes, is defined as one offspring equivalent. From the gene's point of view , evolutionary success ultimately depends on leaving behind the maximum number of copies of itself in the population. Prior to Hamilton's work, it was generally assumed that genes only achieved this through the number of viable offspring produced by the individual organism they occupied. However, this overlooked a wider consideration of a gene's success, most clearly in the case of the social insects where the vast majority of individuals do not produce their own offspring. Hamilton showed mathematically that, because other members of a population may share one's genes, a gene can also increase its evolutionary success by indirectly promoting the reproduction and survival of other individuals who also carry that gene.
Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. Hamilton—inclusive fitness theory—provides the most fundamental and general explanation for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior in the natural world. James Marshall guides readers through the vast and confusing literature on the evolution of social behavior, introducing and explaining the competing theories that claim to provide answers to questions such as why animals evolve to behave altruistically. Using simple statistical language and techniques that practicing biologists will be familiar with, he provides a comprehensive yet easily understandable treatment of key concepts and their repeated misinterpretations. Particular attention is paid to how more realistic features of behavior, such as nonadditivity and conditionality, can complicate analysis.
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PDF | Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson , (); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory | Find.Audric M. 26.05.2021 at 15:33
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