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Social Identity Theory Tajfel And Turner 1986 Pdf

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Social Identity Theory

The result is an identification with a collective, depersonalized identity based on group membership and imbued with positive aspects e. SIT is a classic social psychological theory that attempts to explain intergroup conflict as a function of group-based self-definitions. Intergroup relations; out-group discrimination; social psychology of groups; group dynamics. Applied to social groups, this principle could be used to explain biased and exaggerated perceptions of difference between groups.

However, more recent research has called into question whether social identification leads to out-group degradation and tends to emphasize positive in-group regard more than out-group degradation e. Thus, comparisons between groups are emotionally laden and equivalent to self-other comparisons, with group threats interpreted as threats to the self Smith, Turner , p.

Because social identity effects are based on protection and enhancement of self-concepts, threat to the self-concept would intuitively be related to the strongest identity effects. Several laboratory and field studies have empirically confirmed that when groups pose a threat to one another, the effects of identification increase.

For example, negative out-group characterizations can result from perceptions of out-groups as competing for resources e. As these research areas grew, they branched into a variety of theoretical perspectives, including self-categorization theory, self-enhancement theory, and self-verification theory, among others.

These perspectives do not always agree; for example, self-verification theory Swann, argues that epistemic motives for self-uncertainty reduction are a primary motive for identification such that people will sustain even negative social identities if these identities provide epistemic stability. On the other hand, self-enhancement theory e. Both of these theories, although contradictory, can be interpreted in the light of SIT perspectives, in which social identity contains both an epistemic and a positive self-regard component.

Subsequent research has attempted to tease apart relative effects of self-enhancement and self-verification. In addition, the question of social identification opened up important research into which groups people identify with, when they identify with one group versus another, and how consistent and enduring are such identifications.

Because a person can be a member of a family, a neighborhood, a city, a country, etc. A large body of research e. From a critical psychology perspective, SIT offers important insights regarding the social identity bases of discrimination, prejudice, and intergroup conflict, by locating these phenomena as resulting from group-based categorization and self-enhancement motives.

However, the historical evolution of the theory itself also offers an interesting case in which intergroup conflicts become redefined as aspects of individual identity. As SIT became more focused on self-verification as an epistemic need e. While both of these bases were apparent in the original theory, critical scholars may question whether such a development leaves SIT less able to unpack the psychological bases of conflict and more focused on an individual psychology of concept formation.

In this respect, SIT may have developed increasingly in the direction of an individualist cognitive approach at the cost of its sociological origins. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology Edition. Editors: Thomas Teo. Contents Search.

Social Identity Theory. Download entry PDF. How to cite. Brewer, M. Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71 , 83— Google Scholar. Cooper, J. The formation and persistence of attitudes that support intergroup conflict.

Austin Eds. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. Dovidio, J. Intergroup bias: Status, differentiation, and a common in-group identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75 1 , — PubMed Google Scholar. Duckitt, J. Group identification and intergroup attitudes: A longitudinal analysis in South Africa. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 1 , 80— Hogg, M.

From I to We: social identity and the collective self. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 4 1 , 81— Jones, S. Self- and interpersonal evaluations: Esteem theories versus consistency theories. Psychological Bulletin, 79 , — Reynolds, K.

When are we better than them and they worse than us? A closer look at social discrimination in positive and negative domains.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 1 , 64— Sidanius, J. Ingroup identification, social dominance orientation, and differential intergroup social allocation. Journal of Social Psychology, , — Smith, E.

Affective and cognitive implications of a group becoming part of the self: New models of prejudice and of the self-concept. Hogg Eds. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell. Swann, W. Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. Greenwald Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Tajfel, H. Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, , 96— The achievement of inter-group differentiation.

Tajfel Ed. London: Academic Press. An integrative theory of inter-group conflict. Worchel Eds. Social categorization and intergorup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1 , — Turner, J. Social comparison and social identity: Some prospects for intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5 , 5— Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory.

Social identity theory

The result is an identification with a collective, depersonalized identity based on group membership and imbued with positive aspects e. SIT is a classic social psychological theory that attempts to explain intergroup conflict as a function of group-based self-definitions. Intergroup relations; out-group discrimination; social psychology of groups; group dynamics. Applied to social groups, this principle could be used to explain biased and exaggerated perceptions of difference between groups. However, more recent research has called into question whether social identification leads to out-group degradation and tends to emphasize positive in-group regard more than out-group degradation e. Thus, comparisons between groups are emotionally laden and equivalent to self-other comparisons, with group threats interpreted as threats to the self Smith,

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Turner Published Psychology. View via Publisher.

The theory also specifies the ways in which social identity can influence intergroup behavior. This led to a series of studies that Tajfel and his colleagues conducted in the early s that are referred to as minimal-group studies. In these studies, participants were arbitrarily assigned to different groups. Despite the fact that their group membership was meaningless, however, the research showed that participants favored the group they were assigned to — their in-group — over the out-group, even if they received no personal benefits from their group membership and had no history with members of either group. The studies demonstrated that group membership was so powerful that simply classifying people into groups is enough to make people think of themselves in terms of that group membership.

The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior.

The result is an identification with a collective, depersonalized identity based on group membership and imbued with positive aspects e. SIT is a classic social psychological theory that attempts to explain intergroup conflict as a function of group-based self-definitions. Intergroup relations; out-group discrimination; social psychology of groups; group dynamics. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available.

Originally developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological bases of intergroup discrimination, social identity theory seeks to explain the psychological and social bases for intergroup behavior and has more recently been used to also understand intragroup processes. Social identity theory can be used in the contexts of multicultural counseling, research, and practice to understand the processes by which individuals develop and maintain social identities and groups. The theory includes three core elements: social categorization, social identification, and social comparison. Individuals derive positive valuation from their ingroup i.

Social Identity Theory

Understanding Social Identity Theory and Its Impact on Behavior

By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Henri Tajfel's greatest contribution to psychology was social identity theory. Tajfel proposed that the groups e. Groups give us a sense of social identity: a sense of belonging to the social world. Henri Tajfel proposed that stereotyping i.

Blake Ashforth Ph. It is argued that a social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; b social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation; and c social identification leads to activities that are congruent with the identity, support for institutions that embody the identity, stereotypical perceptions of self and others, and outcomes that traditionally are associated with group formation, and it reinforces the antecedents of identification. This perspective is applied to organizational socialization, role conflict, and intergroup relations. Learn About the New eReader. Downloaded times in the past 12 months. Published online 1 January Published in print 1 January Blake E.


of a theory of intergroup conflict and some preoccupations (see Tajfel, , pp. This identification with the in-group, how- ous social groups or categories, and not at empirical data and the theory in its "classical" ), Brown and Turner.


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). Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner ; Islam ) assumes that one part of the self-concept is defined by belonging to certain social.

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The Social IdentityTheory of Intergroup Behavior. Henri Tajfel • Formerly of the University of Bristol, England. John C. Turner. Macquarie University, Australia.

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