File Name: language assessment principles and classroom practices 2010 .zip
Metrics details. The achievement of curriculum goals and objectives, to a large extent, depends on how assessment methods are designed, implemented, monitored, and evaluated. English language learning in Bangladesh has miserably failed, and ineffective assessment methods may be largely attributed to this failure.
Assessment is often a fearsome topic for students and teachers alike. A common practice is to find online quizzes for in-class diagnostic purposes or as instructional activities. With the advent of technology, there is no shortage of assessment materials, and one can easily find many free online quizzes at various lengths in a given topic, but the real challenge is to choose valid and reliable ones in the abundance of such materials.
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ISBN 0. Language and languages— Examinations, 3. Language acquisition. Abeywickrama, Priyanvada. Vist us at pearsonfongman. In this chapter, these principles are defined and discussed with reference to classroom-based assessment in particular. Chapter 3 then focuses on using these principles, step-by-step, in the actual design of classroom-based tests.
For the most part, that question can be answered by responding to such questions as: Can it be given within appropriate administra- tive constraints? Is it dependable? Does it accurately measure what you want it to measure? Is the language in the test representative of real-world language use? Does the test provide information that is useful for the learner? A test that fails to meet such criteria is impractical. A test that requires individual one-on-one proctoring is impractical for a group of sev- ral hundred test-takers and only a handful of examiners, A test that takes a few min- utes for a student to take and several hours for an examiner to evaluate is impractical for most classroom situations.
A test that can be scored only by computer is imprac- tical if the test takes place a thousand miles away from the nearest computer.
The value and quality of a test sometimes hinge on such nitty-gritty, practical considerations. Here's a little horror story about practicality gone awry. An administrator of a six-week summertime short course needed to place the 50 or so students who had enrolled in the program. A scoring grid accompanied the test. On the day of the test, the required number of test booklets had been secured, a proctor had been assigned to monitor the process, and the administrator and proctor had planned to have the scoring completed by later that afternoon so students could begin classes the next day.
Sounds simple, right? Soon students began to look puz led, By the time the tenth item played, everyone looked bewildered. Now what? She decided to randomly select a short passage from a textbook that was in the room and give the students a dictation. The subsequent 80 nontape-based items proceeded without incident, and the students handed in their score sheets and dictation papers. Students were told to come back the next morning for their results.
Later that evening, having combined dictation scores and the 80item multiple-choice scores, the two frustrated examiners finally arrived at placements for all students, It's easy to sce what went wrong here. While the listening comprehension sec- tion of the test was apparently highly practical easily administered and very quickly scored , the administrator had failed to check the materials ahead of time which, as you will sec later, is a factor that touches on unreliability as well.
Then the proctor and administrator established a scoring procedure that did not fit into the time constraints. In classroom-based testing, time is almost always a crucial practi cality factor for busy teachers with too few hours in the day. A reliable test is consistent and dependable.
If you give the same test to the same student or matched students on two different occasions, the test should yield sim- ilar results. We look here at four pos- sible factors regarding fluctuations in a the student, b the scoring, c the test administration, and d the test itself. See Bachman, , J. Also included in this category are such factors as a testtaker's test-wiseness, or strategies for efficient test-taking Mousavi, , p. But the experience of many teachers suggests otherwise.
In the second half of this chapter, some tips will be offered that may help mini- mize studentrelated unreliability. Inter-rater reliability occurs when two or more scorers yield consistent scores of the same test, Failure to achieve intra-rater reliability could stem from lack of adherence to scoring criteria, inexperience, inattention, or even preconceived biases. Lumley provided some helpful hints on how to ensure inter-rater reliability.
Raterteliability issues are not limited to contexts in which two or more scorers are involved. Intra-rater reliability is an internal factor, a common occur- rence for classroom teachers. In tests of writing skills, rater reliability is particularly hard to achieve because writing profi ciency involves numerous traits that are difficult to define.
The careful specifica- tion of an analytical scoring instrument, however, can increase both inter- and intra-rater reliability J. Brown, Principles of Language Assessment 29 noise outside the building, students sitting next to open windows could not hear the stimuli accurately.
Tests with multiple-choice items must be carefully designed to include a number of character- istics that will guard against unreliability. For example, the items need to be evenly difficult, distractors need to be well designed, and items need to be well distributed to make the test reliable.
In this book, these forms of reliability are not discussed because they rarely are appropriately applied to classroom-based assessment and teacher-made tests. For a full discussion of reliability from a psychometric, statis- tical perspective, consult the aforementioned Bachman , J. In classroom-based assessment, test unreliability can be caused by many fac- tors, including rater bias.
This typically occurs with subjective tests, with open- ended responses e. In such cases, it is obvious that test characteristics can interact with studentrelated unreliability, muddying the lines of distinction between the two types. In somewhat more technical terms, Samuel Messick. Such a test would be easy to administer practical , and the scoring quite depend- able reliable , but it would not constitute a valid test of writing ability without some consideration of comprehensibility, rhetorical discourse elements, and the organization of ideas, among other factors.
How is the validity of a test established? McNamara , there is no final, absolute measure of valiity, but several different kinds of evidence may be invoked in support. Moreover, as Messick 1. Tn some cases, it may be appropriate to examine the extent to which atest calls for performance that matches that of the course or unit being tested. Statistical correlation with other related but independent measures is another widely accepted form of evidence.
Other concems about a tests validity may focus on the consequences of 2 test, beyond measuring the criteria themselves, or even on the testtaker's percep- tion of validity. We look at four types of evidence below. Content Related Evidence If test actually samples the subject matter about which conclusions are to be drawn, and if it requires the testtaker to perform the behavior that is being mez- sured, it can claim content-related evidence of validity, often popularly referred to as content-related validity c.
You can usually identify contentelated evidence observationally if you can clearly define the achievement that you are measuring. If you are trying to assess a person's ability to speak a second language in a conversational setting, asking the learner to answer paper-and-pencil multiple-choice questions requiring grammatical judgments does not achieve content validity. A test that requires the learner to actu ally speak within some sort of authentic context does.
And if a course has perhaps 10 objectives but only two are covered in a test, then content validity suffers. Consider the following quiz on English articles for a high-beginner level of a conversation class listening and speakinj for English-learners, Directions: The purpose ofthis quiz is for you and me to find out how well you know and can.
Last night, had 1 very strange dream. Actually, it was 2 nightmare! This quiz is somewhat content valid because it uses a familiar setting and focuses on previously practiced language forms.
It s possible to contend, for example, that standard language proficiency tests, with their con- textreduced, academically oriented language and limited stretches of discourse, lack content validity because they do not require the fall spectrum of communica.
There is good reasoning behind such criticism; nevertheless, what such proficiency tests lack in content-elated evidence they may gain in other forms of evidence, not to mention practicality and reliability. In an indirect test, learners are not performing the task itself bt rather a task that is related in some way.
A classroom test designed to assess mastery of a point of grammar in communicative use will have criterion validity if test scores are corroborated either by observed subsequent behavior or by other communicative measures of the grammar point in question. Criterion-related evidence usually falls into one of two categories: concurrent and predictive validity. A test has concurrent validity if its results are supported by other concurrent performance beyond the assessment itself.
For example, the validity of a high score on the final exam of a foreign language course will be sub- sstantiated by actual proficiency in the language.
Language assessment literacy has become a critical competence for a language teacher to have. Accordingly, there are many studies in the literature which have researched different aspects of language assessment literacy i. However, they have not investigated how language teachers develop appropriate language assessment according to instructional purposes. Therefore, this study has aimed to reveal the development of language assessment by language teachers. The study was designed as a qualitative study and was carried out with eight participants working in a Turkish foundation university as English language instructors. Think-aloud protocols were used to collect data and the collected data were content-analyzed. The results of the study have indicated that developing language assessments has a critical, student- and course book-centered structure which helps to make exams valid in terms of content and construct validity.
Language Assessment provides teachers with a clear presentation of the essentials for assessing second language learning fairly and effectively. Alatis Award for Distinguished Service, Dr. Brown has lectured to English language teaching audiences around the world. Convert currency. Add to Basket.
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Language assessment: principles and classroom practices / H. Douglas Brown. p.cm. Includes Washback, Applying Principles to the Evaluation of Classroom Tests, 1. population living in cities from to Describe to me.
Principles of assessment serve as a guidelines to ensure that the test is useful, appropriate, effective, and plausible. There are five general principles of assessment:  . This principle refers to the time and cost constraints during the construction and administration of an assessment instrument.
Language Assessment provides a clear presentation of the essentials for assessing second language learning fairly and effectively. This edition includes new research and information on standardized tests, a chapter on form-focused assessment, and a concise glossary. Read more in our eCatalog. Language Assessment provides a clear, comprehensive survey of the essential principles of assessing second language learning.
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Douglas Brown ; Priyanvada Abeywickrama. Edition: 2nd ed. Imprint: White Plains, NY: Pearson Education, Physical description: xiv, pages.
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