File Name: relationship between morphology and syntax .zip
Morphology and syntax are an integral part of linguistics. They are subdivisions of the study of languages and together with phonetics, semantics and phonology contribute to the understanding of how a language is formed.
Morphology also looks at parts of speech , intonation and stress , and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology , which is the classification of languages based on their use of words,  and lexicology , which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary. While words, along with clitics , are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax , in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language.
For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases.
Speakers of English, a fusional language , recognize these relations from their innate knowledge of English's rules of word formation. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats ; and, in similar fashion, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher.
By contrast, Classical Chinese has very little morphology, using almost exclusively unbound morphemes "free" morphemes and depending on word order to convey meaning. Most words in modern Standard Chinese ["Mandarin"], however, are compounds and most roots are bound.
These are understood as grammars that represent the morphology of the language. The rules understood by a speaker reflect specific patterns or regularities in the way words are formed from smaller units in the language they are using, and how those smaller units interact in speech.
In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.
Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills. Studies have indicated that the presence of modification in phonology and orthography makes morphologically complex words harder to understand and that the absence of modification between a base word and its origin makes morphologically complex words easier to understand. Morphologically complex words are easier to comprehend when they include a base word. Polysynthetic languages , such as Chukchi , have words composed of many morphemes.
The morphology of such languages allows for each consonant and vowel to be understood as morphemes , while the grammar of the language indicates the usage and understanding of each morpheme. The discipline that deals specifically with the sound changes occurring within morphemes is morphophonology. The Greco-Roman grammatical tradition also engaged in morphological analysis.
The linguistic term "morphology" was coined by August Schleicher in The term "word" has no well-defined meaning. Generally, a lexeme is a set of inflected word-forms that is often represented with the citation form in small capitals. Eat and eats are thus considered different word-forms belonging to the same lexeme eat.
Eat and Eater , on the other hand, are different lexemes, as they refer to two different concepts. Here are examples from other languages of the failure of a single phonological word to coincide with a single morphological word form.
An extreme level of this theoretical quandary posed by some phonological words is provided by the Kwak'wala language. The three-word English phrase, "with his club", where 'with' identifies its dependent noun phrase as an instrument and 'his' denotes a possession relation, would consist of two words or even just one word in many languages. Unlike most languages, Kwak'wala semantic affixes phonologically attach not to the lexeme they pertain to semantically, but to the preceding lexeme.
Consider the following example in Kwak'wala, sentences begin with what corresponds to an English verb : [c]. In other words, a speaker of Kwak'wala does not perceive the sentence to consist of these phonological words:. A central publication on this topic is the recent volume edited by Dixon and Aikhenvald , examining the mismatch between prosodic-phonological and grammatical definitions of "word" in various Amazonian, Australian Aboriginal, Caucasian, Eskimo, Indo-European, Native North American, West African, and sign languages.
Apparently, a wide variety of languages make use of the hybrid linguistic unit clitic , possessing the grammatical features of independent words but the prosodic -phonological lack of freedom of bound morphemes. The intermediate status of clitics poses a considerable challenge to linguistic theory. Given the notion of a lexeme, it is possible to distinguish two kinds of morphological rules. Some morphological rules relate to different forms of the same lexeme; while other rules relate to different lexemes.
Rules of the first kind are inflectional rules , while those of the second kind are rules of word formation. Informally, word formation rules form "new" words more accurately, new lexemes , while inflection rules yield variant forms of the "same" word lexeme.
The distinction between inflection and word formation is not at all clear cut. There are many examples where linguists fail to agree whether a given rule is inflection or word formation. The next section will attempt to clarify this distinction. Word formation is a process where one combines two complete words, whereas with inflection you can combine a suffix with some verb to change its form to subject of the sentence.
A further difference is that in word formation, the resultant word may differ from its source word's grammatical category whereas in the process of inflection the word never changes its grammatical category. There is a further distinction between two primary kinds of morphological word formation: derivation and compounding. Compounding is a process of word formation that involves combining complete word forms into a single compound form.
Dog catcher , therefore, is a compound, as both dog and catcher are complete word forms in their own right but are subsequently treated as parts of one form. Derivation involves affixing bound i. The word independent , for example, is derived from the word dependent by using the prefix in- , while dependent itself is derived from the verb depend.
There is also word formation in the processes of clipping in which a portion of a word is removed to create a new one, blending in which two parts of different words are blended into one, acronyms in which each letter of the new word represents a specific word in the representation i. NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization, borrowing in which words from one language are taken and used in another, and finally coinage in which a new word is created to represent a new object or concept.
A linguistic paradigm is the complete set of related word forms associated with a given lexeme. The familiar examples of paradigms are the conjugations of verbs and the declensions of nouns. Also, arranging the word forms of a lexeme into tables, by classifying them according to shared inflectional categories such as tense , aspect , mood , number , gender or case , organizes such. For example, the personal pronouns in English can be organized into tables, using the categories of person first, second, third ; number singular vs.
The inflectional categories used to group word forms into paradigms cannot be chosen arbitrarily; they must be categories that are relevant to stating the syntactic rules of the language. Person and number are categories that can be used to define paradigms in English, because English has grammatical agreement rules that require the verb in a sentence to appear in an inflectional form that matches the person and number of the subject.
Therefore, the syntactic rules of English care about the difference between dog and dogs , because the choice between these two forms determines which form of the verb is used. However, no syntactic rule for the difference between dog and dog catcher , or dependent and independent. The first two are nouns and the second two are adjectives.
An important difference between inflection and word formation is that inflected word forms of lexemes are organized into paradigms that are defined by the requirements of syntactic rules, and there are no corresponding syntactic rules for word formation. The relationship between syntax and morphology is called "morphosyntax" and concerns itself with inflection and paradigms, not with word formation or compounding.
Above, morphological rules are described as analogies between word forms: dog is to dogs as cat is to cats and as dish is to dishes. In this case, the analogy applies both to the form of the words and to their meaning: in each pair, the first word means "one of X", while the second "two or more of X", and the difference is always the plural form -s or -es affixed to the second word, signaling the key distinction between singular and plural entities. One of the largest sources of complexity in morphology is that this one-to-one correspondence between meaning and form scarcely applies to every case in the language.
Even cases regarded as regular, such as -s , are not so simple; the -s in dogs is not pronounced the same way as the -s in cats ; and, in plurals such as dishes , a vowel is added before the -s. These cases, where the same distinction is effected by alternative forms of a "word", constitute allomorphy. Phonological rules constrain which sounds can appear next to each other in a language, and morphological rules, when applied blindly, would often violate phonological rules, by resulting in sound sequences that are prohibited in the language in question.
Similar rules apply to the pronunciation of the -s in dogs and cats : it depends on the quality voiced vs. Lexical morphology is the branch of morphology that deals with the lexicon , which, morphologically conceived, is the collection of lexemes in a language.
As such, it concerns itself primarily with word formation: derivation and compounding. There are three principal approaches to morphology and each tries to capture the distinctions above in different ways:. While the associations indicated between the concepts in each item in that list are very strong, they are not absolute. In morpheme-based morphology, word forms are analyzed as arrangements of morphemes.
A morpheme is defined as the minimal meaningful unit of a language. In a word such as independently , the morphemes are said to be in- , de- , pend , -ent , and -ly ; pend is the bound root and the other morphemes are, in this case, derivational affixes. More recent and sophisticated approaches, such as distributed morphology , seek to maintain the idea of the morpheme while accommodating non-concatenated, analogical, and other processes that have proven problematic for item-and-arrangement theories and similar approaches.
Morpheme-based morphology presumes three basic axioms: . Morpheme-based morphology comes in two flavours, one Bloomfieldian  and one Hockettian. For him, there is a morpheme plural using allomorphs such as -s , -en and -ren. Within much morpheme-based morphological theory, the two views are mixed in unsystematic ways so a writer may refer to "the morpheme plural" and "the morpheme -s " in the same sentence.
Lexeme-based morphology usually takes what is called an item-and-process approach. Instead of analyzing a word form as a set of morphemes arranged in sequence, a word form is said to be the result of applying rules that alter a word-form or stem in order to produce a new one.
An inflectional rule takes a stem, changes it as is required by the rule, and outputs a word form;  a derivational rule takes a stem, changes it as per its own requirements, and outputs a derived stem; a compounding rule takes word forms, and similarly outputs a compound stem.
Word-based morphology is usually a word-and-paradigm approach. The theory takes paradigms as a central notion. Instead of stating rules to combine morphemes into word forms or to generate word forms from stems, word-based morphology states generalizations that hold between the forms of inflectional paradigms. The major point behind this approach is that many such generalizations are hard to state with either of the other approaches. Word-and-paradigm approaches are also well-suited to capturing purely morphological phenomena, such as morphomes.
Examples to show the effectiveness of word-based approaches are usually drawn from fusional languages , where a given "piece" of a word, which a morpheme-based theory would call an inflectional morpheme, corresponds to a combination of grammatical categories, for example, "third-person plural". Morpheme-based theories usually have no problems with this situation since one says that a given morpheme has two categories. Item-and-process theories, on the other hand, often break down in cases like these because they all too often assume that there will be two separate rules here, one for third person, and the other for plural, but the distinction between them turns out to be artificial.
The approaches treat these as whole words that are related to each other by analogical rules. Words can be categorized based on the pattern they fit into. This applies both to existing words and to new ones. Application of a pattern different from the one that has been used historically can give rise to a new word, such as older replacing elder where older follows the normal pattern of adjectival superlatives and cows replacing kine where cows fits the regular pattern of plural formation.
In the 19th century, philologists devised a now classic classification of languages according to their morphology. Some languages are isolating , and have little to no morphology; others are agglutinative whose words tend to have many easily separable morphemes; others yet are inflectional or fusional because their inflectional morphemes are "fused" together.
That leads to one bound morpheme conveying multiple pieces of information. A standard example of an isolating language is Chinese. An agglutinative language is Turkish. Latin and Greek are prototypical inflectional or fusional languages.
Morphology deals with the way words are structured and formed, while syntax is dedicated to a focused study of the structure of sentences within a given linguistic system. The difference between morphology and syntax is the functionality served by each of these terms in the linguistic system. While morphology deals with the framework of rules to study meanings created by words in a linguistic system, syntax refers to the rules that govern the formation of grammatically correct sentences. Syntax relates to the rules that guide the formation of sentences in a particular linguistic order. Morphology exclusively pertains to the study of the structure of words and the related norms of word formation in a given language. Morphology is an essential part of linguistic studies. Morphology is defined as the study of words in a given linguistic order.
The morphological structure of a complex word determines how the constituent morphemes of a word are realized phonetically. The phonological structure of a complex word reflects its morphological structure, but is not isomorphic to that structure. Phonology plays a role in the selection of one from a set of competing affixes. This can be modelled in terms of phonological output conditions. Summary
Speech sounds as physical entities may be infinitely varied, but when they function as elements in a given language, as phonological units, they are highly constrained. What is the difference between morphology, phonology, and. Linguistics also deals with the social, cultural, historical and political factors that influence language, through which linguistic and languagebased. Saddock identity avoidance in phonology and morphology moira yip impoverishment.
Linguistics is the study of language and its structure.
Урчащий мотор шумным эхо отражался от стен, и он понимал, что это с головой выдает его в предутренней тишине квартала Санта-Крус. В данный момент у него только одно преимущество - скорость. Я должен поскорее выбраться отсюда. - сказал он. После множества поворотов и коротких рывков Беккер оказался на перекрестке трех улочек с табличкой Эскуина-де-лос-Рейес и понял, что уже был здесь минуту-другую. Притормозив, он задумался, в какую сторону повернуть, и в этот момент мотор его веспы кашлянул и заглох. Стрелка топливного индикатора указывала на ноль.
Его аналитический ум искал выход из создавшегося положения. Сознание нехотя подтверждало то, о чем говорили чувства. Оставался только один выход, одно решение.
Пилот сказал вполне определенно: У меня приказ оставаться здесь до вашего возвращения. Трудно даже поверить, подумал Беккер, что после всех выпавших на его долю злоключений он вернулся туда, откуда начал поиски. Чего же он ждет. Он засмеялся.
Дэвид… я подумала… Оперативный агент Смит усадил Беккера на сиденье перед монитором. - Он немного сонный, мадам. Дайте ему минутку прийти в .
Мощенный брусчаткой тротуар под ногами постепенно сливался в одну темную гладкую полосу. Быстро опускалась ночь. Капля Росы. Что-то в этом абсурдном имени тревожно сверлило его мозг.
Там его дожидается лирджет. Прогремел выстрел. Пуля ударила в асфальт в нескольких метрах позади. Беккер оглянулся.
Нам обоим грозит опасность.
Morphology also looks at parts of speech , intonation and stress , and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning.Wolfgang M. 27.05.2021 at 23:27
Inuktitut is a polysynthetic language, which means morphemes accumulate to form a word comparable to a sentence in English.