File Name: innate and adaptive immune responses in asthma file.zip
The prevalence of asthma has been rising steadily for several decades, and continues to be a major public health and global economic burden due to both direct and indirect costs.
Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inflammatory and immune responses play key roles in the development and progression of COPD. These signals act as ligands to Toll-like receptors TLRs , triggering the production of cytokines and inducing innate inflammation. Furthermore, viral and bacterial infections interfere with the chronic inflammation seen in stable COPD and exacerbations via pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs. Finally, autoimmunity is another novel aspect that may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD.
It aims to publish relevant articles in the broadest sense on all aspects of microbiology, infectious diseases and immune response to infectious agents. The BJID is a bimonthly publication and one of the most influential journals in its field in Brazil and Latin America with a high impact factor. Since its inception it has garnered a growing share of the publishing market. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same.
Metrics details. Type 2-immunity represents the typical adaptive response to allergen exposure in atopic individuals. It mainly involves Th2 cells and immunoglobulin E, as the main orchestrators of type 2-inflammation. Recently, it has been highlighted that allergens may be responsible for a Th2 response beside specific IgE activation and that a number of other environmental stimuli, such as viruses and pollutants, can trigger the same pattern of inflammation beyond atopy. Emerging data sustain a substantial role of the so-called epithelial dysfunction in asthma pathogenesis, both from anatomic and functional point of view. Furthermore an increasing amount of evidence demonstrates the relevance of innate immunity in polarizing a Th2 impaired response in asthmatic patients.
Ishmael FT. The Inflammatory Response in the Pathogenesis of Asthma. It is now clear that asthma is not a single disease, but rather a syndrome that can be caused by multiple biologic mechanisms.
Inhalation is required for respiration and life in all vertebrates. This process is not without risk, as it potentially exposes the host to environmental pathogens with every breath. This makes the upper respiratory tract one of the most common routes of infection and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. To combat this, the lung relies on the innate immune defenses.
The adaptive immune system , also referred as the acquired immune system , is a subsystem of the immune system that is composed of specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The acquired immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates the other being the innate immune system. Like the innate system, the adaptive immune system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components and destroys invading pathogens.
Молодой священник, причащавший Беккера, смотрел на него с неодобрением. Ему было понятно нетерпение иностранца, но все-таки зачем рваться без очереди. Беккер наклонил голову и тщательно разжевывал облатку.