File Name: definition of inflation and deflation .zip
What is Inflation? Inflation refers to the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as food, clothing, housing, recreation, transport, consumer staples, etc.
Inflation means there is a sustained increase in the price level. The main causes of inflation are either excess aggregate demand AD economic growth too fast or cost push factors supply-side factors. If the economy is at or close to full employment, then an increase in aggregate demand AD leads to an increase in the price level PL. As firms reach full capacity, they respond by putting up prices leading to inflation. Also, near full employment with labour shortages, workers can get higher wages which increase their spending power.
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The common measure of inflation is the inflation rate , the annualized percentage change in a general price index , usually the consumer price index , over time. Economists believe that very high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are harmful, and are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. Inflation affects economies in various positive and negative ways. The negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, and if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity ,  allowing the central bank more leeway in carrying out monetary policy , encouraging loans and investment instead of money hoarding, and avoiding the inefficiencies associated with deflation. Today, most economists favor a low and steady rate of inflation.
Inflation is the increase in the price of goods and services. This increase has two main characteristics:. The increase in prices may have different causes , which means we have different types of inflation. Below we look at the most significant:.
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Inflation is when prices rise, and deflation is when prices fall. You can have both inflation and deflation at the same time in various asset classes. That's why the Federal Reserve , the nation's central bank , tries to control them.
This is a great question! Inflation rates and speculation about future inflation are mentioned so often in the media that it's important to know some basics about inflation. What is inflation?
In economics , deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services. Inflation reduces the value of currency over time, but sudden deflation increases it. This allows more goods and services to be bought than before with the same amount of currency. Deflation is distinct from disinflation , a slow-down in the inflation rate, i. Economists generally believe that a sudden deflationary shock is a problem in a modern economy because it increases the real value of debt, especially if the deflation is unexpected. Deflation may also aggravate recessions and lead to a deflationary spiral. Deflation usually happens when supply is high when excess production occurs , when demand is low when consumption decreases , or when the money supply decreases sometimes in response to a contraction created from careless investment or a credit crunch or because of a net capital outflow from the economy.
Беккера не устраивала перспектива ждать десять часов, пока тучный немец со своей спутницей спустятся к завтраку. - Я понимаю, - сказал .
- Да тут несколько тысяч долларов. - Я действую по инструкции, сэр. - Пилот повернулся и скрылся в кабине. Дверца за ним захлопнулась.
Танкадо отдал кольцо? - скептически отозвалась Сьюзан. - Да. Такое впечатление, что он его буквально всучил - канадцу показалось, будто бы он просил, чтобы кольцо взяли.
Услугу? - бурно отреагировала Сьюзан. - Послать его в Испанию значит оказать услугу. - Да. Я заплачу ему десять тысяч долларов за один день работы. Он заберет личные вещи Танкадо и вернется домой.
- Позволь мне объяснить. - Голос его, однако, мягче не .