bar research and development digest pdf Monday, May 24, 2021 3:35:17 AM

Bar Research And Development Digest Pdf

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Daily Research Briefs

Manufacturer reports of the accuracy of rapid antigen tests are inflated by using a diagnostic case-control design, highly trained personnel, and use of banked samples from before the pandemic as negative samples. But how do these perform in the real world, where sampling may not be perfect, and patients present with clinically suspected COVID or who are asymptomatic?

Two studies completed this evaluation, comparing the rapid antigen tests with reference laboratory PCR. On the other hand, positive tests have a high specificity and positive likelihood ratio, so a positive result can be believed.

Written by Mark H. J Clin Microbiol. In this report, the researchers randomized 2, patients to receive azithromycin mg once daily for 10 days or until discharge and 5, patients to usual care alone.

They also found no significant difference in length of stay or survival to discharge. Additionally, they found no improved outcomes in patients on mechanical ventilation. One final point. I copied the official list of collaborators into a spreadsheet and counted 5, names! Not bad, at least one investigator for every control patient. This has to be a record. Written by Henry C. The World Health Organization WHO created a standing guideline panel comprising content experts, clinicians, patients, and methodologists who use modern guideline development methods to evaluate the evidence related to managing patients with COVID and to distill the data into a cohesive set of recommendations.

This is their third update, which replaces the one issued in November The online version of the guideline has useful interactive graphics summarizing the supporting data and their final recommendations. The guideline makes strong recommendations against using hydroxychloroquine and against using lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with COVID Additionally, due to low-quality evidence, the WHO makes a weak recommendation against using remdesivir. Finally, the WHO makes a strong recommendation for the use of corticosteroids only in patients hospitalized with severe or critical illness.

Still, a fairly simple set of recommendations! A living WHO guideline on drugs for covid Updated February The FDA has released its report on the efficacy and safety of the Ad The vaccine was evaluated in 43, adults, and data for efficacy are reported for 39, adults. Efficacy was Efficacy varied by region, with All seven deaths attributed to COVID occurred in the placebo group and were in South Africa; there were fewer all-cause deaths in the vaccine group in those vaccinated at least 14 days before 3 vs.

A single episode of a serious hypersensitivity reaction occurred, but it was not anaphylaxis. The Infectious Disease Society of America IDSA used modern guideline development methods that included a multidisciplinary team of clinicians, public health workers, and methodologists who developed critical PICO-format questions and systematic searches of the research.

In this most recent update, they made 19 recommendations for managing patients with confirmed COVID The panel made strong recommendations against using anti-malarials, alone or in combination with macrolide antibiotics. The panel made a strong recommendation to use dexamethasone or equivalent dose of other glucocorticoids if dexamethasone is not available in critically ill hospitalized patients and a conditional recommendation for use in patients hospitalized with severe COVID infections and against its use in hospitalized patients with nonsevere illness and who do not need oxygen.

Based on current data, the IDSA recommends against using tocilizumab in hospitalized patients unless they are severely or critically ill conditional recommendation. It also makes a conditional recommendation in favor of using remdesivir in patients hospitalized with severe illness and those using supplemental oxygen but not on ventilators.

The IDSA recommends against using remdesivir in hospitalized patients not needing oxygen. The IDSA also made a conditional recommendation when managing hospitalized patients with severe illness who have contraindications to corticosteroids that patients receive baricitinib with remdesivir rather than remdesivir alone. Among the additional recommendations, the IDSA recommends against using the following specific agents except in the context of a clinical trial: convalescent serum, famotidine, baricitinib plus remdesivir plus corticosteroids, and ivermectin.

Source: Infectious Diseases Society of America. Updated February 22, COV2-S vaccine effectiveness trials. The primary endpoints were vaccine efficacy starting at 14 days and 28 days after the injection, although they report results only for day efficacy in this initial press release.

Efficacy against severe disease increased over time, with no cases in vaccinated participants reported after day There were no hospitalizations or deaths starting 28 days after vaccination.

They do not report the effectiveness of prevention of any symptomatic COVID infection, whereas other manufacturers have. Adverse events were not reported in detail, although the report says, based on a database of over , vaccine trial participants, that this vaccine adverse-event rate was similar to other vaccines.

Serious events were no more common in the vaccination group compared with the placebo group, and no cases of anaphylaxis occurred. Written by John Hickner on February 14, January 20, The protocol called for participants 19 years and older to be randomized to receive two doses of the vaccine or two placebo injections 12 weeks apart, although there was variability in when the second dose was actually administered, allowing an analysis of effectiveness by timing of the second dose.

The investigators randomized 17, participants, and 32 had a symptomatic infection greater than 14 days after the second dose. The overall vaccine efficacy was No hospitalizations or deaths occurred in the vaccinated group, and there were 15 hospitalizations in the control group. A subgroup analysis found the vaccine to be Interestingly, efficacy was higher with a longer interval between the first and second vaccination: To determine whether the initial dose provided some protection, they analyzed the effectiveness of the first dose starting 22 days after the initial injection.

Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV AZD vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials [published online February 1, ]. Veterans Affairs health system. The researchers compared patients who had an initial dose of prophylactic anticoagulation in the first 24 hours of hospitalization with those who did not, with a primary outcome of day mortality.

The analysis used a propensity score-matched approach to adjust for comorbidities, tobacco use, medications, and laboratory results. This was a very sophisticated analysis that is as close as you can get to a randomized trial without doing one. Overall, In the propensity score-matched analysis, the day mortality was significantly lower in the group receiving early thromboprophylaxis Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation for prevention of coronavirus disease mortality in patients admitted to hospital in the United States: cohort study.

This randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the basis for approval of this vaccine, enrolled 30, individuals. Participants were given two injections 28 days apart of either the vaccine or placebo. Starting 14 days after the second injection, symptomatic COVID infection occurred in participants in the placebo group and in 11 participants in the vaccinated group.

The results were similar in subgroups such as those who had evidence of infection at baseline 2. Results were similar 14 days after the first dose, indicating early protection even before the second dose was administered. Systemic adverse events occurred more often in the mRNA group than in the placebo group after the first dose The frequency of serious adverse events was 0.

N Engl J Med. They recruited patients with COVID who were not yet hospitalized and considered not likely to need hospitalization. The patients could be diagnosed clinically or with PCR testing. The patients also had to have at least one high-risk criterion: 70 years of age or older, obesity, diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, known respiratory disease, known heart failure, known coronary disease, fever of at least Using intention-to-treat, they found the rate of a composite day outcome death or COVID hospitalization was similar in both groups of patients 4.

There was also no difference in the rate of each of these events individually 0. When they restricted their analysis to the 4, patients with a positive PCR result, the differences became statistically significant for the composite outcome 4. In the real world, clinicians seeing a high-risk patient with symptoms and a COVID exposure are more likely to apply data from the main analysis and not this last one. More colchicine-treated patients developed pulmonary emboli 0. In one analysis, of 2, deaths were due to the B.

Another case-control analysis of community testing data linked to mortality data found a mortality hazard ratio of 1. In a matched cohort analysis of 14, people infected with the B. However, in a hospital-based study, the risk of death from the B. More and better data are needed to confirm whether this new strain is more deadly.

Source: Iacobucci, G. Covid New UK variant may be linked to increased death rate, early data indicate. This research paper tracks the emergence and accelerating transmission of the B. The investigators sequenced B. They found that during December and January, the proportion of B. The proportion of B. The investigators project that the B. Preliminary reports from the United Kingdom suggest a slightly higher mortality rate for the B. Ten cases of anaphylaxis were reported, a rate of one per , doses, This is approximately half the rate of anaphylaxis compared with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

Nine of the 10 individuals with anaphylaxis to the Moderna vaccine had a history of allergies or allergic reactions, seven due to medications. Five had a prior history of anaphylaxis. The onset was within 15 minutes of vaccine administration in nine individuals and after 30 minutes in one case.

Six patients were hospitalized, and four required endotracheal intubation. No patients died.

Managing COVID-19 Transmission Risks in Bars: An Interview and Observation Study

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BAR R&D Digest is published quarterly by the. Applied Communication Division of the Department of. Agriculture-Bureau of Agricultural Research (DA-BAR).


DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED HOT WATER TREATMENT (AHWT) FOR MANGO

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Citations per year

Manufacturer reports of the accuracy of rapid antigen tests are inflated by using a diagnostic case-control design, highly trained personnel, and use of banked samples from before the pandemic as negative samples. But how do these perform in the real world, where sampling may not be perfect, and patients present with clinically suspected COVID or who are asymptomatic? Two studies completed this evaluation, comparing the rapid antigen tests with reference laboratory PCR. On the other hand, positive tests have a high specificity and positive likelihood ratio, so a positive result can be believed. Written by Mark H. J Clin Microbiol. In this report, the researchers randomized 2, patients to receive azithromycin mg once daily for 10 days or until discharge and 5, patients to usual care alone.

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Despite the efforts of bar operators and guidance from government, the researchers observed incidents of concern within licensed premises, including close physical interaction between customers and with staff, frequently featuring alcohol intoxication and rarely effectively stopped by staff. The findings suggest grounds for uncertainty about the extent to which new rules can be consistently and effectively implemented in a sector where interaction between tables, households and strangers is the norm, and alcohol is routinely consumed. These results which are the first of its kind informs COVID policies regarding re-opening of hospitality sector in UK and the world.

Mangaluru, Mar Officers of Customs at Mangaluru International Airport here on Tuesday seized five numbers of 10 tola gold bars weighing The passenger had brought the said contraband gold bars by concealing them under seat number 23F of Jet Airways Flight 9W in which he had travelled from Dubai to Mangaluru. Abdul Khader was arrested and produced before the chief judicial magistrate, Mangaluru for remand. Further investigation is under progress under the direction of commissioner of customs, S Rajarethinam, assistant commissioner of customs airport , Mangaluru stated. GBS is a condition in which the immune system attacks the nerves.

Gatorade is an American brand of sports-themed beverage and food products, built around its signature line of sports drinks. Gatorade is currently manufactured by PepsiCo and is distributed in over 80 countries. It was originally made for the Gators at the University of Florida to replenish the carbohydrates that the school's student-athletes burned and the combination of water and electrolytes that they lost in sweat during rigorous sports activities. Originally produced and marketed by Stokely-Van Camp , the Gatorade brand was purchased by the Quaker Oats Company in , which, in turn, was bought by PepsiCo in

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