silicon heterojunction solar cell and crystallization of amorphous silicon pdf Tuesday, May 25, 2021 1:54:27 PM

Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell And Crystallization Of Amorphous Silicon Pdf

File Name: silicon heterojunction solar cell and crystallization of amorphous silicon .zip
Size: 2730Kb
Published: 25.05.2021

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS.

This website uses cookies to deliver some of our products and services as well as for analytics and to provide you a more personalized experience. Click here to learn more. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies.

Koptyug Ave. Its basic optical and optoelectronic properties are known to be improved via phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline phase. All these methods are usually accompanied by a melting-cooling-solidification cycle.

Optics Express

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The former is limited by bulk and interface recombination, leading to a reduced saturation current density, the latter by series resistance causing a lower fill factor. Both are additionally limited by electrical shading and losses at grain boundaries and dislocations. The past decade has witnessed severe price drops for PV modules causing a remarkable growth of the global installed capacity.

Germany's industry within one and a half years 3. With module lifetimes exceeding 20 years, the energy demand during production is already on a low level, but still has to be improved. Liquid phase crystallized silicon on glass has the potential to further reduce the specific silicon consumption and therefore energy demand and costs of PV significantly while maintaining a wafer-like electronic quality 4.

One obstacle was the demonstration of a wafer equivalent V OC as an indicator for the electronic quality of the silicon absorber.

In combination with established light trapping approaches eg. Comparing the demonstrated efficiencies in this paper with other crystalline silicon thin-film approaches underlines the advantages of LPC technology. Jeong et al. However, for this demonstration, silicon-on-insulator technology was used, which is irrelevant for PV due to the high price of the wafers.

In contrast to that, the absorbers in this work are formed directly on glass and only standard texturing was applied to increase the light-trapping inside the silicon. With an epitaxial foil concept Govaerts et al.

However, the bonding process used in this work is still lithography based which is irrelevant for PV industry, but an anodization approach has been proposed. In contrast to the LPC-technology, this epitaxial foil bonding also uses mono-crystalline Si and the efficiency was achieved on an absorber three times as thick as in this work.

Until now, the best reported efficiency on an LPC-Si absorber of In this paper we present improvements in device FF and our latest progress in cell development and efficiency improvement. A detailed current and resistance loss analysis is presented, supported by 2D-simulations. This way, possible levers to further improve efficiencies are identified.

In this section the poly-crystalline silicon thin-film absorber fabrication is described. Firstly, commercially available 1. It serves not only as a diffusion barrier to prevent impurities from the glass to enter the silicon, but also at the same time as an anti-reflection layer, and as passivation layer.

Moreover, it has to be thermally stable enough for the subsequent crystallization process and ensure proper wetting during the crystallization.

The final absorber doping density can be easily tuned varying the phosphine flow during the deposition of said thin layer. Finally, a sacrificial SiO x is deposited to ensure additional wetting and protect the sample from contamination during the conversion of the precursor from its initial amorphous-nano-crystalline state to poly-crystalline Si During the scan the silicon absorber is locally entirely molten and re-crystallizes along the scanning direction into elongated grains with a height as thick as the complete absorber layer, width up to millimeters and length up to centimeters The doping atoms of the thin doped a-Si:H layer are homogeneously distributed into the whole absorber during the LPC process.

On the previously described absorbers two different cell types are fabricated. Their fabrication shall be described in the following. This cell is also back-junction-back-contacted, but only the emitter is counted as cell area. The absorber contact lies outside of the rectangle. Hence, we call it full-emitter cell FEC structure. These structures are simple in their design and since the cell area is emitter-only, they provide insight into the material quality.

They are much less prone to ohmic losses and thus show higher efficiencies. Since they are co-processed on the same glass-substrate with the IBC cells detailed analysis of materials and device related aspects are possible. Both cell designs are schematically depicted in Fig. To fabricate both contact systems a standard RCA 20 cleaning is performed on the hydrogen passivated and textured LPC absorbers. Contrary to the 0. It is a metal-ion-free developer solution which is described by Tabata el al.

Other developer solutions contain mobile ions potassium or sodium , which are known to cause contamination problems in Si material After developing, the photosensitive resin defines the emitter area.

Exposed areas are etched using a mixture of nitric, phosphorous, and hydrofluoric acid. The layer is structured in the same manner as the emitter using a selective etch process similar to the one described in refs 19 , 23 but using 2.

For TMAH also heavily boron doped layers work as an etch-stop We found that TMAH etches more homogeneously on small areas.

In Fig. The FF of highly doped samples are depicted in black. The FF for the lowly doped samples are added analogously in red. Blue diamonds represent data from ref. Empty stars indicate mean values. They were cut out of an absorber that was co-processed with some of the highly doped samples.

Also, the device geometry feature sizes are of the same order of magnitude as the typical grain sizes. The doping density was determined via both Hall and four point probe sheet resistance measurements. They were measured with an additional light trapping anti-reflection foil ARF by DSM advanced surfaces 27 placed on the glass. The current of the FEC is the highest with A deeper analysis of the current densities via LBIC follows in the section about current analysis.

A quarter of the cells was again characterized under the solar simulator after 4 months and no degradation was observed not shown. External QE using open symbols and internal QE using closed ones and red circles and black squares for the highly and lowly doped cell, respectively. J SC determined by integrating the EQE and correspond well within errors with the ones obtained by solar simulator.

The best FEC structure blue is added to demonstrate the potential of the absorbers. FEC structure is omitted to not overload the graphic. J SC determined from integrating EQE curves corresponds well within errors with solar simulator data. The images are shown in Fig. Areas of reduced collection stem from absorber contact area regular pattern or GB and dislocations.

The bright line at about two thirds height of IBC image d is a measurement artifact from an irregularity in the glass not affecting performance. White crosses mark locations where local effective diffusion lengths were fitted from line-scans. Dashed ellipses mark areas for comparison to EL and microscope images in Fig.

Values above blue dashed lines in b , c mark values that were used for current loss evaluation. Areas of high signal yellow-white indicate high current collection; black areas indicate locations of low-to-zero collection. Two major loss mechanisms can be determined from the images. Secondly, the current collection underneath the absorber contact fingers for the IBC cell is lower due to an insufficient lateral diffusion length for the minority charge carriers holes. This phenomenon is often called electrical shading.

This can be especially detrimental for n-type absorbers as the minority charge carriers exhibit lower mobilities, hence also shorter diffusion lengths, compared to the minorities in p-type electrons. Histograms Fig. For the IBC cell we first excluded the values around the absorber grid not shown. This hypothetical maximum Jsc yielded Current loss analysis for the best highly and lowly doped IBC cells. Rest: calculated from literature data.

Hatched areas: loss by bulk and interface recombination and parasitic absorption. The difference between the These left-over losses are 6. The typical stack described in the experimental part including the KOH texture was simulated and the parasitic absorption extracted and integrated over the AM1. It resulted in 0. This represents a cell which is only one-sidedly textured. The back-side KOH texture is still included. This series resistance can be subdivided into the components of base resistivity, resistivity in Ag fingers and busbars, and contact resistance of n-type and p-type contacts, respectively.

More details on the calculations can be found in ref. To determine the base resistivity sheet resistance measurements on various spots on the textured absorber before RCA cleaning were done. Accordingly, the base resistivity for lower dopant concentration is 6 times higher than for the highly doped cells. To determine the n and p contact resistances, test structures were co-processed on highly doped small wafer pieces similar to the ones described in ref.

They were evaluated using the transfer length method TLM All series resistance contributions are depending on the contact system geometries. The geometries we chose were a pitch of 1. If the p -contact area fraction is increased, the contribution to the series resistance from the n -contact area rises. While keeping a constant emitter-to-pitch ratio, increasing the pitch will reduce the contact resistance fraction but the contribution from the base will rise.

Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric.

Crystalline silicon c-Si is the crystalline forms of silicon , either polycrystalline silicon poly-Si, consisting of small crystals , or monocrystalline silicon mono-Si, a continuous crystal. Crystalline silicon is the dominant semiconducting material used in photovoltaic technology for the production of solar cells. These cells are assembled into solar panels as part of a photovoltaic system to generate solar power from sunlight. In electronics, crystalline silicon is typically the monocrystalline form of silicon, and is used for producing microchips. This silicon contains much lower impurity levels than those required for solar cells. Production of semiconductor grade silicon involves a chemical purification to produce hyperpure polysilicon followed by a recrystallization process to grow monocrystalline silicon. The cylindrical boules are then cut into wafers for further processing.

Hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon deposition has been a subject of research over the last four decades, supported by its increasing number of applications. Many deposition techniques involving physical sputtering or chemical plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition processes have been studied. The choice of the deposition technique may help to favour some type of film precursor, in particular SiH 3 which is often considered as the most suitable to obtain device grade material. In particular, thanks to in-situ ellipsometry measurements, we demonstrate that there is a growth zone close to the film surface, where cross-linking reactions leading to bulk-like formation take place. In fact, the crystallization front may be located a few tens of nanometers below the surface exposed to the plasma, thus suggesting that the film properties are governed neither by the film precursor, nor by the deposition technique.


Silicon heterojunction solar cell and crystallization of amorphous silicon An alternative is the heterojunction cells, such as amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell, where the emitter Request Full-text Paper PDF.


Crystalline silicon

Hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon deposition has been a subject of research over the last four decades, supported by its increasing number of applications. Many deposition techniques involving physical sputtering or chemical plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition processes have been studied. The choice of the deposition technique may help to favour some type of film precursor, in particular SiH 3 which is often considered as the most suitable to obtain device grade material. In particular, thanks to in-situ ellipsometry measurements, we demonstrate that there is a growth zone close to the film surface, where cross-linking reactions leading to bulk-like formation take place. In fact, the crystallization front may be located a few tens of nanometers below the surface exposed to the plasma, thus suggesting that the film properties are governed neither by the film precursor, nor by the deposition technique.

Crystalline silicon

We review the field of thin-film silicon solar cells with an active layer thickness of a few micrometers. These technologies can potentially lead to low cost through lower material costs than conventional modules, but do not suffer from some critical drawbacks of other thin-film technologies, such as limited supply of basic materials or toxicity of the components. Amorphous Si technology is the oldest and best established thin-film silicon technology. Amorphous silicon is deposited at low temperature with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition PECVD.

Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity[J]. Article views PDF downloads Cited by Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n -type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity[J]. Previous Article Next Article. Research article Topical Sections. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n -type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity.

Search documents Go! Advanced search. Browse topics Choose Conference Danel, S. Harrison, B. Martel, C.

Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

Nature Communications 9 November Johlin S. Mann S. Kasture A.

Мотоцикл и такси с грохотом въехали в пустой ангар. Беккер лихорадочно осмотрел его в поисках укрытия, но задняя стена ангара, громадный щит из гофрированного металла, не имела ни дверей, ни окон. Такси было уже совсем рядом, и, бросив взгляд влево, Беккер увидел, что Халохот снова поднимает револьвер. Повинуясь инстинкту, он резко нажал на тормоза, но мотоцикл не остановился на скользком от машинного масла полу.

Шифровалка начала вибрировать, словно из ее глубин на поверхность рвалось сердитое морское чудовище. Ей слышался голос Дэвида: Беги, Сьюзан, беги. Стратмор приближался к ней, его лицо казалось далеким воспоминанием. Холодные серые глаза смотрели безжизненно.

3 Comments

Nimia C. 26.05.2021 at 08:15

Gre premier 2016 with 6 practice tests pdf percy jackson and the sea of monsters free pdf download

Daniel B. 29.05.2021 at 09:14

The essence of trading psychology in one skill pdf download ccsp all in one exam guide pdf

Genevre D. 31.05.2021 at 17:14

The situation of filipino youth a national survey pdf social media marketing all in one for dummies pdf

LEAVE A COMMENT