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Language Text And Context Essays In Stylistics Pdf

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What is discourse analysis?

As a discipline, stylistics links literary criticism to linguistics. It does not function as an autonomous domain on its own, and it can be applied to an understanding of literature and journalism as well as linguistics. Literariness, in other words, is here conceived as 'a point on a cline rather than as an absolute'. Stylistics as a conceptual discipline may attempt to establish principles capable of explaining particular choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language, such as in the literary production and reception of genre , the study of folk art , in the study of spoken dialects and registers , and can be applied to areas such as discourse analysis as well as literary criticism.

Common features of style include the use of dialogue , including regional accents and individual idioms or idiolects , the distribution of sentence lengths, the use of particular language registers, and so on. In addition, stylistics is a distinctive term that may be used to determine the connections between the form and effects within a particular variety of language.

Therefore, stylistics looks at what is 'going on' within the language; what the linguistic associations are that the style of language reveals.

The analysis of literary style goes back to the study of classical rhetoric , though modern stylistics has its roots in Russian Formalism [11] and the related Prague School of the early twentieth century. For Bally, Saussure's linguistics by itself couldn't fully describe the language of personal expression. Taking forward the ideas of the Russian Formalists, the Prague School built on the concept of foregrounding , where it is assumed that poetic language is considered to stand apart from non-literary background language, by means of deviation from the norms of everyday language or parallelism.

Roman Jakobson had been an active member of the Russian Formalists and the Prague School, before emigrating to America in the s. Michael Halliday is an important figure in the development of British stylistics. Dialect refers to the habitual language of a particular user in a specific geographical or social context. Register describes the choices made by the user, [21] choices which depend on three variables: field "what the participants Fowler comments that different fields produce different language, most obviously at the level of vocabulary Fowler.

Halliday's third category, mode , is what he refers to as the symbolic organisation of the situation. Downes recognises two distinct aspects within the category of mode and suggests that not only does it describe the relation to the medium: written, spoken, and so on, but also describes the genre of the text Downes.

Halliday refers to genre as pre-coded language, language that has not simply been used before, but that predetermines the selection of textual meanings. The linguist William Downes makes the point that the principal characteristic of register, no matter how peculiar or diverse, is that it is obvious and immediately recognisable Downes. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language , Crystal observes that, in practice, most stylistic analysis has attempted to deal with the complex and 'valued' language within literature, i.

He goes on to say that in such examination the scope is sometimes narrowed to concentrate on the more striking features of literary language , for instance, its 'deviant' and abnormal features, rather than the broader structures that are found in whole texts or discourses. For example, the compact language of poetry is more likely to reveal the secrets of its construction to the stylistician than is the language of plays and novels Crystal.

As well as conventional styles of language there are the unconventional — the most obvious of which is poetry. In Practical Stylistics , HG Widdowson examines the traditional form of the epitaph , as found on headstones in a cemetery. For example:. Widdowson makes the point that such sentiments are usually not very interesting and suggests that they may even be dismissed as 'crude verbal carvings' and crude verbal disturbance Widdowson, 3.

Nevertheless, Widdowson recognises that they are a very real attempt to convey feelings of human loss and preserve affectionate recollections of a beloved friend or family member. However, what may be seen as poetic in this language is not so much in the formulaic phraseology but in where it appears. The verse may be given undue reverence precisely because of the sombre situation in which it is placed.

Widdowson suggests that, unlike words set in stone in a graveyard, poetry is unorthodox language that vibrates with inter-textual implications Widdowson. The first is that there may be an over-preoccupation with one particular feature that may well minimise the significance of others that are equally important Wetherill. The second is that any attempt to see a text as simply a collection of stylistic elements will tend to ignore other ways whereby meaning is produced Wetherill.

In ' Poetic Effects ' from Literary Pragmatics , the linguist Adrian Pilkington analyses the idea of ' implicature ', as instigated in the previous work of Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson. Implicature may be divided into two categories: 'strong' and 'weak' implicature, yet between the two extremes there are a variety of other alternatives.

The strongest implicature is what is emphatically implied by the speaker or writer, while weaker implicatures are the wider possibilities of meaning that the hearer or reader may conclude. Pilkington's ' poetic effects ', as he terms the concept, are those that achieve most relevance through a wide array of weak implicatures and not those meanings that are simply 'read in' by the hearer or reader.

Yet the distinguishing instant at which weak implicatures and the hearer or reader's conjecture of meaning diverge remains highly subjective. As Pilkington says: 'there is no clear cut-off point between assumptions which the speaker certainly endorses and assumptions derived purely on the hearer's responsibility. Widdowson points out that in Samuel Taylor Coleridge 's poem " The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " , the mystery of the Mariner's abrupt appearance is sustained by an idiosyncratic use of tense.

Widdowson notices that when the content of poetry is summarised, it often refers to very general and unimpressive observations, such as 'nature is beautiful; love is great; life is lonely; time passes', and so on Widdowson. But to say:. This language gives the reader a new perspective on familiar themes and allows us to look at them without the personal or social conditioning that we unconsciously associate with them Widdowson.

So, although the reader may still use the same exhausted words and vague terms like 'love', 'heart' and 'soul' to refer to human experience, to place these words in a new and refreshing context allows the poet the ability to represent humanity and communicate honestly. This, in part, is stylistics, and this, according to Widdowson, is the point of poetry Widdowson. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the band, see The Stylistics. Outline History Index. General linguistics. Applied linguistics. Acquisition Anthropological Applied Computational Discourse analysis Documentation Forensic History of linguistics Neurolinguistics Philosophy of language Phonetics Psycholinguistics Sociolinguistics Text and corpus linguistics Translating and interpreting Writing systems.

Theoretical frameworks. Stylistics and the teaching of literature. Longman: London. Routledge p. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict. Jeffries, D. McIntyre, D. Bousfield eds. Stylistics and Social Cognition.

Amsterdam: Rodopi. Stylistics: A resource book for students. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Watson, S. Zyngier eds. Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. Oxford: Blackwell. Categories : Stylistics Applied linguistics Language varieties and styles Literature. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Part of a series on. Applied linguistics Acquisition Anthropological Applied Computational Discourse analysis Documentation Forensic History of linguistics Neurolinguistics Philosophy of language Phonetics Psycholinguistics Sociolinguistics Text and corpus linguistics Translating and interpreting Writing systems.

Functional Stylistics in the TEXTUAL respect

Published on August 23, by Amy Luo. Revised on June 19, Discourse analysis is a research method for studying written or spoken language in relation to its social context. It aims to understand how language is used in real life situations. Discourse analysis is a common qualitative research method in many humanities and social science disciplines, including linguistics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and cultural studies. Table of contents What is discourse analysis used for?

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Focuses on the principle of contextualization as it applies to the interpretation, description, theorizing and reading of literary and non-literary texts, covering a range of topics from postmodernism and genre to irony and gender. Read more Table of contents. Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. Finding libraries that hold this item You may have already requested this item.

First published in , this wide-ranging collection of essays focuses on the principle of contextualisation as it applies to the interpretation, description.

Definition and Examples of Text in Language Studies

Please note that ebooks are subject to tax and the final price may vary depending on your country of residence. Written over the last thirty years, this collection of Professor Peter Verdonk's most important work on the stylistics of poetry clearly shows that the stylistics of poetic discourse is a diverse and valuable interdiscipline. Discussing the poetry of Auden, Heaney and Larkin amongst many others, Verdonk covers everything from intrinsic textual meaning and external context in its widest sense to the reader's cognitive and emotive response to poems. The book will appeal to all students on stylistics and literary linguistics courses, especially those focussing on poetry and poetic language. Verdonk presents his arguments clearly and in a logically coherent sequence

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Society in Language, Language in Society

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Systemic Functional Linguistics has experienced over 40 years of application to literary discourse analysis and gained considerable achievements, with particular reference to the ideational and interpersonal areas. Contrary to that situation is the textual area, which, except for cohesion, is much less explored in thematization and information. This paper aims to fill this gap. Taking the short narrative text Gehenna I investigate thematic and information creating patterns for their aesthetic effects. There exist types of unfolding routines in literary texts that are oriented towards stylistic goals. The observations manifest once again the power of SFL in its appliability. K Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan on Language.

The essay aims to provide some introduction to Stylistics and Discourse analysis, their major domains and then compares both the disciplines in terms of their contribution in analysing literature. It seems easy to claim that, stylistics and discourse analysis are different disciplines, but it is not so simple in fact, as both the disciplines have got fuzzy boundaries and it is very difficult to draw a clear line of demarcation between them. Discourse analysis, therefore, relies on knowledge and methodologies from a wide range of fields, such as, philosophy, anthropology, sociology, social and cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence and so is the Stylistics. The essay, in this context focuses particularly on either stylistics and discourse analysis are two different domains or former is the sub field of the later, and if this is so then how they differ from literary criticism in analysing literature. Fasold The discipline is based on the fact that language needs a context for its existence and it is impossible to understand the linguistic items, used in discourse, without a context. As Fairclough states:.


Looking for a different module? This module is concerned with the stylistic analysis of literature and is based on the premise that the decision to study literature is also a decision to study the expressive mechanics of language and vice versa.

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Ruby L. 31.05.2021 at 18:45

As a discipline, stylistics links literary criticism to linguistics.

Maureen E. 05.06.2021 at 11:41

Stylistics is the study of textual meaning.

Annie S. 06.06.2021 at 00:46

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