File Name: dimensions of business and nonprofit collaborative relationships .zip
Collaboration between nonprofit and business sectors is widely regarded as a value creation process that benefits society, business, and nonprofit organizations NPOs. This process, however, has rarely been considered from a nonprofit perspective.
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A starter kit for leaders of social change. The scale and complexity of the US public education system has thwarted attempted reforms for decades. Major funders, such as the Annenberg Foundation, Ford Foundation , and Pew Charitable Trusts have abandoned many of their efforts in frustration after acknowledging their lack of progress.
Once the global leader—after World War II the United States had the highest high school graduation rate in the world—the country now ranks 18th among the top 24 industrialized nations, with more than 1 million secondary school students dropping out every year. The heroic efforts of countless teachers, administrators, and nonprofits , together with billions of dollars in charitable contributions, may have led to important improvements in individual schools and classrooms, yet system-wide progress has seemed virtually unobtainable.
Against these daunting odds, a remarkable exception seems to be emerging in Cincinnati. Strive, a nonprofit subsidiary of KnowledgeWorks, has brought together local leaders to tackle the student achievement crisis and improve education throughout greater Cincinnati and northern Kentucky.
In the four years since the group was launched, Strive partners have improved student success in dozens of key areas across three large public school districts. Despite the recession and budget cuts, 34 of the 53 success indicators that Strive tracks have shown positive trends, including high school graduation rates, fourth-grade reading and math scores, and the number of preschool children prepared for kindergarten.
Why has Strive made progress when so many other efforts have failed? It is because a core group of community leaders decided to abandon their individual agendas in favor of a collective approach to improving student achievement. More than leaders of local organizations agreed to participate, including the heads of influential private and corporate foundations, city government officials, school district representatives, the presidents of eight universities and community colleges, and the executive directors of hundreds of education-related nonprofit and advocacy groups.
No single organization, however innovative or powerful, could accomplish this alone. Instead, through a carefully structured process, Strive focused the entire educational community on a single set of goals, measured in the same way. Participating organizations are grouped into 15 different Student Success Networks SSNs by type of activity, such as early childhood education or tutoring. Each SSN has been meeting with coaches and facilitators for two hours every two weeks for the past three years, developing shared performance indicators, discussing their progress, and most important, learning from each other and aligning their efforts to support each other.
Strive, both the organization and the process it helps facilitate, is an example of collective impact, the commitment of a group of important actors from different sectors to a common agenda for solving a specific social problem. Collaboration is nothing new. The social sector is filled with examples of partnerships, networks, and other types of joint efforts. But collective impact initiatives are distinctly different. Unlike most collaborations, collective impact initiatives involve a centralized infrastructure, a dedicated staff, and a structured process that leads to a common agenda, shared measurement, continuous communication, and mutually reinforcing activities among all participants.
Although rare, other successful examples of collective impact are addressing social issues that, like education, require many different players to change their behavior in order to solve a complex problem. In , Marjorie Mayfield Jackson helped found the Elizabeth River Project with a mission of cleaning up the Elizabeth River in southeastern Virginia, which for decades had been a dumping ground for industrial waste.
They engaged more than stakeholders, including the city governments of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach, Va. Navy, and dozens of local businesses, schools, community groups, environmental organizations, and universities, in developing an point plan to restore the watershed.
Fifteen years later, more than 1, acres of watershed land have been conserved or restored, pollution has been reduced by more than million pounds, concentrations of the most severe carcinogen have been cut sixfold, and water quality has significantly improved. Much remains to be done before the river is fully restored, but already 27 species of fish and oysters are thriving in the restored wetlands, and bald eagles have returned to nest on the shores. Or consider Shape up Somerville, a citywide effort to reduce and prevent childhood obesity in elementary school children in Somerville, Mass.
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, and funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts, and United Way of Massachusetts Bay and Merrimack Valley, the program engaged government officials, educators, businesses, nonprofits, and citizens in collectively defining wellness and weight gain prevention practices.
Schools agreed to offer healthier foods, teach nutrition, and promote physical activity. Local restaurants received a certification if they served low-fat, high nutritional food. Even sidewalks were modified and crosswalks repainted to encourage more children to walk to school. Even companies are beginning to explore collective impact to tackle social problems.
And Mars must find ways to work with its direct competitors on pre-competitive issues to reach farmers outside its supply chain. These varied examples all have a common theme: that large-scale social change comes from better cross-sector coordination rather than from the isolated intervention of individual organizations.
Evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is still limited, but these examples suggest that substantially greater progress could be made in alleviating many of our most serious and complex social problems if nonprofits, governments, businesses, and the public were brought together around a common agenda to create collective impact.
Funders and nonprofits alike overlook the potential for collective impact because they are used to focusing on independent action as the primary vehicle for social change.
Most funders, faced with the task of choosing a few grantees from many applicants, try to ascertain which organizations make the greatest contribution toward solving a social problem.
Grantees, in turn, compete to be chosen by emphasizing how their individual activities produce the greatest effect. Each organization is judged on its own potential to achieve impact, independent of the numerous other organizations that may also influence the issue.
Roundtable on Collective Impact. Collective Insights on Collective Impact. In short, the nonprofit sector most frequently operates using an approach that we call isolated impact.
It is an approach oriented toward finding and funding a solution embodied within a single organization, combined with the hope that the most effective organizations will grow or replicate to extend their impact more widely. Funders search for more effective interventions as if there were a cure for failing schools that only needs to be discovered, in the way that medical cures are discovered in laboratories. As a result of this process, nearly 1. Recent trends have only reinforced this perspective.
The growing interest in venture philanthropy and social entrepreneurship , for example, has greatly benefited the social sector by identifying and accelerating the growth of many high-performing nonprofits, yet it has also accentuated an emphasis on scaling up a few select organizations as the key to social progress. No single organization is responsible for any major social problem, nor can any single organization cure it. The problem with relying on the isolated impact of individual organizations is further compounded by the isolation of the nonprofit sector.
Social problems arise from the interplay of governmental and commercial activities, not only from the behavior of social sector organizations. As a result, complex problems can be solved only by cross-sector coalitions that engage those outside the nonprofit sector. In fact, some problems are best solved by individual organizations. Some social problems are technical in that the problem is well defined, the answer is known in advance, and one or a few organizations have the ability to implement the solution.
Examples include funding college scholarships, building a hospital, or installing inventory controls in a food bank.
Adaptive problems, by contrast, are complex, the answer is not known, and even if it were, no single entity has the resources or authority to bring about the necessary change. Reforming public education, restoring wetland environments, and improving community health are all adaptive problems. In these cases, reaching an effective solution requires learning by the stakeholders involved in the problem, who must then change their own behavior in order to create a solution.
Shifting from isolated impact to collective impact is not merely a matter of encouraging more collaboration or public-private partnerships. It requires a systemic approach to social impact that focuses on the relationships between organizations and the progress toward shared objectives.
And it requires the creation of a new set of nonprofit management organizations that have the skills and resources to assemble and coordinate the specific elements necessary for collective action to succeed. Our research shows that successful collective impact initiatives typically have five conditions that together produce true alignment and lead to powerful results: a common agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, continuous communication, and backbone support organizations.
Common Agenda Collective impact requires all participants to have a shared vision for change, one that includes a common understanding of the problem and a joint approach to solving it through agreed upon actions. Take a close look at any group of funders and nonprofits that believe they are working on the same social issue, and you quickly find that it is often not the same issue at all. Each organization often has a slightly different definition of the problem and the ultimate goal.
These differences are easily ignored when organizations work independently on isolated initiatives, yet these differences splinter the efforts and undermine the impact of the field as a whole. Collective impact requires that these differences be discussed and resolved. Every participant need not agree with every other participant on all dimensions of the problem. In fact, disagreements continue to divide participants in all of our examples of collective impact.
All participants must agree, however, on the primary goals for the collective impact initiative as a whole. The Elizabeth River Project, for example, had to find common ground among the different objectives of corporations, governments, community groups, and local citizens in order to establish workable cross-sector initiatives. Funders can play an important role in getting organizations to act in concert. Haile Jr. Bank Foundation, expressed interest in education, they were encouraged by virtually every major education leader in Cincinnati to join Strive if they wanted to have an impact in local education.
Shared Measurement Systems Developing a shared measurement system is essential to collective impact. Agreement on a common agenda is illusory without agreement on the ways success will be measured and reported.
It may seem impossible to evaluate hundreds of different organizations on the same set of measures. Yet recent advances in Web-based technologies have enabled common systems for reporting performance and measuring outcomes. These systems increase efficiency and reduce cost. All of the preschool programs in Strive, for example, have agreed to measure their results on the same criteria and use only evidence-based decision making.
Each type of activity requires a different set of measures, but all organizations engaged in the same type of activity report on the same measures. Looking at results across multiple organizations enables the participants to spot patterns, find solutions, and implement them rapidly. The preschool programs discovered that children regress during the summer break before kindergarten.
Mutually Reinforcing Activities Collective impact initiatives depend on a diverse group of stakeholders working together, not by requiring that all participants do the same thing, but by encouraging each participant to undertake the specific set of activities at which it excels in a way that supports and is coordinated with the actions of others.
The power of collective action comes not from the sheer number of participants or the uniformity of their efforts, but from the coordination of their differentiated activities through a mutually reinforcing plan of action.
The multiple causes of social problems, and the components of their solutions, are interdependent. They cannot be addressed by uncoordinated actions among isolated organizations. All participants in the Elizabeth River Project, for example, agreed on the point watershed restoration plan, but each is playing a different role based on its particular capabilities. One group of organizations works on creating grassroots support and engagement among citizens, a second provides peer review and recruitment for industrial participants who voluntarily reduce pollution, and a third coordinates and reviews scientific research.
The 15 SSNs in Strive each undertake different types of activities at different stages of the educational continuum. Strive does not prescribe what practices each of the participating organizations should pursue.
Each organization and network is free to chart its own course consistent with the common agenda, and informed by the shared measurement of results. Continuous Communication Developing trust among nonprofits, corporations, and government agencies is a monumental challenge. Participants need several years of regular meetings to build up enough experience with each other to recognize and appreciate the common motivation behind their different efforts.
They need time to see that their own interests will be treated fairly, and that decisions will be made on the basis of objective evidence and the best possible solution to the problem, not to favor the priorities of one organization over another. Even the process of creating a common vocabulary takes time, and it is an essential prerequisite to developing shared measurement systems. Skipping meetings or sending lower-level delegates was not acceptable.
Most of the meetings were supported by external facilitators and followed a structured agenda. The Strive networks, for example, have been meeting regularly for more than three years.
Nonprofits contribute to communities and society through service delivery, innovation, knowledge-building, and civic engagement. They frequently partner with and push government to better serve its citizens through relationships that have been characterized as supplementary, complementary, and adversarial Young In all of these roles and relationships, nonprofits must compete for resources, time, and attention with other nonprofits, government entities, and for-profit organizations within communities, nationally, and internationally. Competition sometimes shapes and sometimes is shaped by public policies that affect the rules of the game. In this conceptual paper, we explore the dimensions of nonprofit competition and the implications for the nonprofit—government supplementary, complementary, and adversarial relationships. In this conceptual paper, I explore the dimensions of nonprofit competition and the implications for the nonprofit—government complementary aligned , supplementary independent , and adversarial change relationships.
Dimensions of Business and Nonprofit Collaborative Relationships book. BySridhar Samu, Walter W Wymer, Jr. BookNonprofit and Business Sector.
This paper aims to understand the characteristics, factors and contingencies of social partnerships between multinational corporations MNCs and nonprofits in the context of sustainability that enable or impede the value creation outcome of the collaboration. A multi-case study with 12 social partnerships operating in China was investigated considering their relative representativeness and different value creation outcomes. The author presents a snapshot of the current state and unique differences of social partnerships in China, whereas the existing literature has mostly addressed the topic from a Western context. Moreover, the author highlights the key determinants and contextual features that influence the value creation outcome of social partnerships in China. This study concentrates on the social partnerships in the largest emerging country context of China, and the representativeness of data collected from a small sample may be challenged.
A page manual that explains in lay terms what State and local governments must do to ensure that their services, programs, and activities are provided to the public in a nondiscriminatory manner. We say in our business that a company is known by the men it keeps. You can define the rating models for each review.
A strategic alliance also see strategic partnership is an agreement between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon objectives needed while remaining independent organizations. The alliance is a cooperation or collaboration which aims for a synergy where each partner hopes that the benefits from the alliance will be greater than those from individual efforts. The alliance often involves technology transfer access to knowledge and expertise , economic specialization ,  shared expenses and shared risk. A strategic alliance will usually fall short of a legal partnership entity, agency, or corporate affiliate relationship. Typically, two companies form a strategic alliance when each possesses one or more business assets or have expertise that will help the other by enhancing their businesses.
Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Table of Contents. Hint Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book Close hint. Abstract Chapter 3 defines humanitarian supply chain relationships among the actors in disaster relief. The chapter provides the reader with a description of inter-organizational interactions in emergency relief operations, and reveals the importance for cross-learning between the private and the humanitarian sector.
Your project must use citizen science research methods. To lead a proposal, you must be based at a UK research organisation. Your proposal must be in collaboration with members of the public. You can also include partners from outside academia. Check if you are eligible for research and innovation funding. Projects should be a collaboration between researchers, a specific group of citizens and, where appropriate, relevant partners from outside academia. This can include partnerships with organisations from private, public and non-profit sectors, as well as community representatives and groups.
Nearly all disciplines and dimensions of society have geospatial dimensions. Discover, analyze and download data from Food Security. An Initiative supports policy- or activity-oriented goals through workflows, tools and team collaboration.
A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value ,  in economic, social, cultural or other contexts. The process of business model construction and modification is also called business model innovation and forms a part of business strategy. In theory and practice, the term business model is used for a broad range of informal and formal descriptions to represent core aspects of a business , including purpose , business process , target customers , offerings, strategies, infrastructure , organizational structures , sourcing, trading practices, and operational processes and policies including culture.
It can also increase the likelihood of your business. Doctoral Candidate. As the developed countries spread their wings across the globe, the third world talent finds more employment opportunities in their lap. Problems in international business relationships are not always caused by language difficulties.
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PDF | Collaborative relationships between businesses and nonprofits have grown tremendously in the last few years. These cross-sector.