File Name: propaganda and psychological warfare .zip
THIS article represents a preliminary account of United Nations psychological warfare acttvities during the first phase of the Korean war. Since it was written prior to the large-scale entry of Chinese forces into the fighting, it deals only with leaflet, radio and other forms of propaganda directed to Korean soldiers and civilians during the six month period from June to December, This article was compiled on the basis of material released to the press by the Far East Command.
All those who attemtp to influence opinion through the media of information are faced with the problem of ealuation the effects of their communications. The wartime propagandist is in a particularly difficult position, since his audience is usually inaccessible to him. On the basis of experience in the past war, however, certain generalization can be made regarding principles which should guide the combat psycological warrior: his material must be credible as well as truthful; he must learn how to address potential waverers on the enemy side; he must cocentrate his fire; he must not try to export domestic propaganda; he must find some limited area of agreement with his audience; and he must determine which activities would benefit both his audience and his own cause.
Various techniques are used, and are aimed at influencing a target audience's value system, belief system, emotions , motives , reasoning , or behavior. It is used to induce confessions or reinforce attitudes and behaviors favorable to the originator's objectives, and are sometimes combined with black operations or false flag tactics. It is also used to destroy the morale of enemies through tactics that aim to depress troops' psychological states. Target audiences can be governments , organizations , groups , and individuals , and is not just limited to soldiers. Civilians of foreign territories can also be targeted by technology and media so as to cause an effect in the government of their country. In Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes , Jacques Ellul discusses psychological warfare as a common peace policy practice between nations as a form of indirect aggression.
Psychological warfare , also called psywar , the use of propaganda against an enemy, supported by such military, economic, or political measures as may be required. Propaganda is also used to strengthen the resolve of allies or resistance fighters. The twisting of personality and the manipulation of beliefs in prisoners of war by brainwashing and related techniques can also be regarded as a form of psychological warfare. Although often looked upon as a modern invention, psychological warfare is of ancient origin. The conquests of Genghis Khan were aided by expertly planted rumours about large numbers of ferocious Mongol horsemen in his army. With modern scientific advances in communications, however, such as high-speed printing and radio , together with important developments in the fields of public-opinion analysis and the prediction of mass behaviour, psychological warfare has become a more systematic and widespread technique in strategy and tactics , and a larger ingredient of warfare as a whole. Most modern armies have specialized units trained and equipped for psychological warfare.
Refworks Account Login. Open Collections. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. Chapters 1 and 2 provide introductory and historical context for the emergence of psychological warfare, while chapters 3 and 5 trace the rhetorical evolution of this geographical imaginary from the Second World War to the Cold War period. Chapters 4 and 6 show how, conversely, psychological warfare existed and evolved in American theatres of war. It is argued throughout that meanings of psychological warfare are largely determined by their two geographical contexts, split between domestic rhetorical strategy, and strategies for occupying and pacifying civilian populations abroad.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. There have always been propagandists, some extremely skilled, but the continuing, institutionalized, large-scale attempt at mass political persuasion is a modern phenomenon, not fully developed before the First World War. The study of propaganda is even more recent for, apart from a few pioneering works at the turn of the present century, very little was written before
At a time when world attention is focused on new and terrible engines of physical destruction, the United States has allowed its psychological weapons to fall into desuetude. Our propaganda effort during the last war was characterized by improvisation, but in the event of another war it is doubtful whether time for renewed improvisation will be available. An analysis of the various types of war-time propaganda indicates that exhaustive study and preparation are necessary if this arm is to be kept in readiness. If it is to be prepared to seize the psychological offensive, the United States must first adopt a realistic attitude toward political warfare; secondly, it must devote far more energy to planning and preparation in this field than it has done in the past. Most users should sign in with their email address.
in such a way that it facilitates propaganda or military operations, either with respect to the direct po- “In the first World. War, psychological warfare was employed chiefly by means of PW and through _Gelfi_pdf P
Psychological operations PSYOP are operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions, motives, and objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of United States psychological operations is to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U. They are an important part of the range of diplomatic, informational, military and economic activities available to the U. They can be utilized during both peacetime and conflict.
Since biblical times, psychological warfare has been a nonviolent weapon used to achieve military goals. Its implications on political life have been especially felt since the latter half of the twentieth century. Unable to display preview.
Here are entered general works dealing with methods used to undermine the morale of the civilian population and the military forces of an enemy country. See also what's at Wikipedia , your library , or elsewhere. Help with reading books -- Report a bad link -- Suggest a new listing. Edited by John Mark Ockerbloom onlinebooks pobox.
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PROPAGANDA, INFORMATION AND. PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE: COLD WAR AND HOT. A List of Holdings. Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.