File Name: wireline tools and equipment .zip
The oil and gas industry demands efficiency, including excellence in data quality and safety, in addition to lower-cost deployment options.
One of the advantages of wireline tool is to be used as a part of finishing operation. We also include the full vdo transcript in order to assist learning of people in our industry as usual. Fishing services are frequently used to retrieve unwanted objects from a wellbore such as tools or equipment; and twisted or broken sections of pipe or tubing.
In the oil and gas industry , the term wireline usually refers to the use of multi-conductor, single conductor or slickline cable, or "wireline", as a conveyance for the acquisition of subsurface petrophysical and geophysical data and the delivery of well construction services such as pipe recovery, perforating, plug setting and well cleaning and fishing. The subsurface geophysical and petrophysical information results in the description and analysis of subsurface geology, reservoir properties and production characteristics. Associated with this, "wireline logging" is the acquisition and analysis of geophysical and petrophysical data and the provision of related services provided as a function of along-hole depth. There are four basic types of wireline: multi-conductor, single conductor, slickline and braided line. Other types of wireline include sheathed slickline and fibre-optic lines.
In the oil and gas industry , the term wireline usually refers to the use of multi-conductor, single conductor or slickline cable, or "wireline", as a conveyance for the acquisition of subsurface petrophysical and geophysical data and the delivery of well construction services such as pipe recovery, perforating, plug setting and well cleaning and fishing.
The subsurface geophysical and petrophysical information results in the description and analysis of subsurface geology, reservoir properties and production characteristics.
Associated with this, "wireline logging" is the acquisition and analysis of geophysical and petrophysical data and the provision of related services provided as a function of along-hole depth. There are four basic types of wireline: multi-conductor, single conductor, slickline and braided line. Other types of wireline include sheathed slickline and fibre-optic lines.
Multi-conductor lines consist of external armor wires wound around a core of typically 4- or 7-conductors. The conductors are bound together in a central core, protected by the outer armor wires. These conductors are used to transmit power to the downhole instrumentation and transmit data and commands to and from the surface.
Multi-conductor cables are used primarily in open- and cased- hole applications. Typically they have diameters from 0. Note that wireline diameters and performance characteristics are typically expressed in imperial units. Multi-conductor cables can be sheathed in smooth polymer coverings but are more commonly open wound cables. Single-conductor cables are similar in construction to multi-conductor cables but have only one conductor. Because of their size, these cables can be used in pressurized wells making them particularly suited for cased hole logging activities under pressure.
They are typically used for well construction activities such as pipe recovery, perforating and plug setting as well a production logging and reservoir production characterization such as production logging, noise logging, pulsed neutron, production fluid sampling and production flow monitoring.
Slickline is a smooth single strand of wireline with diameters ranging form 0. Slickline has no conductor although there are specialized polymer coated slicklines and tubing encapsulated TEC slicklines. They are used for light well construction and well maintenance activities as well as memory reliant subsurface data gathering.
Slickline work includes mechanical services such a gauge emplacement and recovery, subsurface valve manipulation, well bore cleaning and fishing. Braided line has mechanical characteristics similar to mono-conductor wireline, and is used for well construction and maintenance tasks such as heavy duty fishing and well bore cleaning work.
Used to place and recover wellbore equipment, such as plugs, gauges and valves, slicklines are single-strand non-electric cables lowered into oil and gas wells from the surface.
Slicklines can also be used to adjust valves and sleeves located downhole, as well as repair tubing within the wellbore. Wrapped around a drum on the back of a truck, the slickline is raised and lowered in the well by reeling in and out the wire hydraulically. Braided line can contain an inner core of insulated wires which provide power to equipment located at the end of the cable, normally referred to as electric line, and provides a pathway for electrical telemetry for communication between the surface and equipment at the end of the cable.
On the other hand, wirelines are electric cables that transmit data about the well. Consisting of single strands or multi-strands, the wireline is used for both well intervention and formation evaluation operations.
In other words, wirelines are useful in gathering data about the well in logging activities, as well as in workover jobs that require data transmittal. First developed by Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger in , wireline logs measure formation properties in a well through electrical lines of wire. Different from measurement while drilling MWD and mud logs, wireline logs are constant downhole measurements sent through the electrical wireline used to help geologists, drillers and engineers make real-time decisions about the reservoir and drilling operations.
Wireline instruments can measure a host of petrophysical properties that form the basis of geological and petrophysical analysis of the subsurface. Measurements include self-potential, natural gamma ray, acoustic travel time, formation density, neutron porosity, resistivity and conductivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, borehole imaging, well bore geometry, formation dip and orientation, fluid characteristics such as density and viscosity and formation sampling.
The logging tool, also called a sonde , is located at the end of the wireline. The measurements are made by initially lowering sonde using the wireline to the prescribed depth and then recorded while raising it out of the well.
The sonde responses are recorded continuously on the way up creating a so-called "log" of the instrument responses. The tension on the line assures that the depth measurement can be corrected for elastic stretch of the wireline. This elastic stretch correction will change as a function of cable length, tension at surface called surface tension, Surf. Ten and at the tool end of the wireline called cablehead tension, CHT and the elastic stretch coefficient of the cable.
None of these are constants, so the correction has to be adjusted continuously between when starting the logging operation to recovery to the reference point usually surface, or zero depth point, ZDP. When producing wells require remedial work to sustain, restore or enhance production, this is called workover. Many times, workover operations require production shut-in, but not always. In workover operations, a well-servicing unit is used to winch items in and out of the wellbore.
The line used to raise and lower equipment can be braided steel wireline or a single steel slickline. Workover operations conducted can include well clean-up, setting plugs, production logging and perforation through explosives. Wireline tools are specially designed instruments lowered into a well bore on the end of the wireline cable. They are individually designed to provide any number of particular services, such as evaluation of the rock properties, the location of casing collars, formation pressures, information regarding the pore size or fluid identification and sample recovery.
Modern wireline tools can be extremely complicated, and are often engineered to withstand very harsh conditions such as those found in many modern oil, gas, and geothermal wells. Pressures in gas wells can exceed 30, psi, while temperatures can exceed deg Fahrenheit in some geothermal wells.
Corrosive or carcinogenic gases such as hydrogen sulfide can also occur downhole. To reduce the amount of time running in the well, several wireline tools are often joined together and run simultaneously in a tool string that can be hundreds of feet long and weigh more than lbs. Natural gamma ray tools are designed to measure gamma radiation in the Earth caused by the disintegration of naturally occurring potassium, uranium, and thorium.
Unlike nuclear tools, these natural gamma ray tools emit no radiation. The tools have a radiation sensor, which is usually a scintillation crystal that emits a light pulse proportional to the strength of the gamma ray striking it. This light pulse is then converted to a current pulse by means of a photomultiplier tube PMT. From the photomultiplier tube, the current pulse goes to the tool's electronics for further processing and ultimately to the surface system for recording.
The strength of the received gamma rays is dependent on the source emitting gamma rays, the density of the formation, and the distance between the source and the tool detector.
The log recorded by this tool is used to identify lithology , estimate shale content, and depth correlation of future logs. Nuclear tools measure formation properties through the interaction of reservoir molecules with radiation emitted from the logging tool.
The two most common properties measured by nuclear tools are formation porosity and rock density:. Formation porosity is determined by installing a radiation source capable of emitting fast neutrons into the downhole environment. Any pore spaces in the rock are filled with fluid containing hydrogen atoms, which slow the neutrons down to an epithermal or thermal state. This atomic interaction creates gamma rays which are then measured in the tool through dedicated detectors, and interpreted through a calibration to a porosity.
A higher number of gamma rays collected at the tool sensor would indicate a larger number of interactions with hydrogen atoms, and thus a larger porosity. Density tools use gamma ray radiation to determine the lithology and density of the rock in the downhole environment. Modern density tools utilize a Cs radioactive source to generate gamma rays which interact with the rock strata. Since higher density materials absorb gamma rays much better than lower density materials, a gamma ray detector in the wire line tool is able to accurately determine formation density by measuring the number and associated energy level of returning gamma rays that have interacted with the rock matrix.
Density tools usually incorporate an extendable caliper arm, which is used both to press the radioactive source and detectors against the side of the bore and also to measure the exact width of the bore in order to remove the effect of varying bore diameter on the readings.
Some modern nuclear tools use an electronically powered source controlled from the surface to generate neutrons. By emitting neutrons of varying energies, the logging engineer is able to determine formation lithology in fractional percentages. In any matrix which has some porosity, the pore spaces will be filled with a fluid of oil, gas either hydrocarbon or otherwise or formation water sometimes referred to as connate water.
This fluid will saturate the rock and change its electrical properties. A wireline resistivity tool direct injects current lateralog-type tools for conductive water-based muds or induces induction-type tools for resistive or oil-based muds an electric current into the surrounding rock and determines the resistivity via Ohm's law.
The resistivity of the formation is used primarily to identify pay zones containing highly resistive hydrocarbons as opposed to those containing water, which is generally more conductive. It is also useful for determining the location of the oil-water contact in a reservoir.
Most wireline tools are able to measure the resistivity at several depths of investigation into the bore hole wall, allowing log analysts to accurately predict the level of fluid invasion from the drilling mud, and thus determine a qualitative measurement of permeability.
Some resistivity tools have many electrodes mounted on several articulated pads, allowing for multiple micro-resistivity measurements. These micro-resistivities have a very shallow depth of investigation, typically in the range of 0. Resistivity imagers are available which operate using induction methods for resistive mud systems oil base , and direct current methods for conductive mud systems water based. Sonic tools, such as the Baker Hughes XMAC-F1, consist of multiple piezoelectric transducers and receivers mounted on the tool body at fixed distances.
The transmitters generate a pattern of sound waves at varying operating frequencies into the down hole formation. The signal path leaves the transmitter, passes through the mud column, travels along the borehole wall and is collected at multiple receivers spaced out along the tool body. The time it takes for the sound wave to travel through the rock is dependent on a number of properties of the existing rock, including formation porosity, lithology, permeability and rock strength.
Different types of pressure waves can be generated in specific axis, allowing geoscientists to determine anisotropic stress regimes. This is very important in determining hole stability and aids drilling engineers in planning for future well design.
Sonic tools are also used extensively to evaluate the cement bond between casing and formation in a completed well, primarily by calculating the accentuation of the signal after it as passed through the casing wall see Cement Bond Tools below. Ultrasonic tools use a rotating acoustic transducer to map a degree image of the borehole as the logging tool is pulled to surface.
This is especially useful for determining small scale bedding and formation dip, as well as identifying drilling artifacts such as spiraling or induced fractures. A measurement of the nuclear magnetic resonance NMR properties of hydrogen in the formation.
There are two phases to the measurement: polarization and acquisition. First, the hydrogen atoms are aligned in the direction of a static magnetic field B0. This polarization takes a characteristic time T1. Second, the hydrogen atoms are tipped by a short burst from an oscillating magnetic field that is designed so that they precess in resonance in a plane perpendicular to B0.
The frequency of oscillation is the Larmor frequency. The precession of the hydrogen atoms induces a signal in the antenna. The decay of this signal with time is caused by transverse relaxation and is measured by the CPMG pulse sequence.
The decay is the sum of different decay times, called T2. The T2 distribution is the basic output of an NMR measurement. The NMR measurement made by both a laboratory instrument and a logging tool follow the same principles very closely.
An important feature of the NMR measurement is the time needed to acquire it. In the laboratory, time presents no difficulty.
This wireline tools and equipment catalog, as one of the most operational sellers here will categorically be in the midst of the best options to review. In some cases, you may also find free books that are not public domain. Not all free books are copyright free. The Hydraulic Wireline Jar is made up in the string just above the tools or equipment to be run.
The global wireline services market size stood at USD The increasing demand for oil and gas products around the globe, along with the rising discoveries of new bulk potential reservoirs, is expected to boost the demand for wireline services and aid in expanding the market size. Wireline services are multiline cables or a high tensile single strandline, and therefore routine maintenance is to be carried out in wellbore with wireline tools. It performs various functions such as pipe recovery, intervention, reservoir evaluation, and others. It also delivers flawless service execution.
The sealing element is mechanically locked in the set position so that pressure differentials can be held from above or below the locking mandrel. It can be used in conjunction with pump through plugs, positive plug, safety valves, standing valves, and packoffs. They are used in heavier weight tubing due to higher well pressure.
Tools inserted in to the well for both workover and logging efforts, wirelines and slicklines are very similar devices. While a slickline is a thin cable introduced into a well to deliver and retrieve tools downhole, a wireline is an electrical cable used to lower tools into and transmit data about the conditions of the wellbore. Usually consisting of braided cables, wirelines are used to perform wireline logging, as well. Used to place and recover wellbore equipment, such as plugs, gauges and valves, slicklines are single-strand non-electric cables lowered into oil and gas wells from the surface. Slicklines can also be used to adjust valves and sleeves located downhole, as well as repair tubing within the wellbore.
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Wireline Tools and Equipment Catalog. A. Locking Mandrels. B. Plug Assemblies. C. Packoff Equipment. D. Surface Equipment. E. Tool String Equipment. F.
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