File Name: what is biodiversity and why is it important .zip
Citation: Schlaepfer MA On the importance of monitoring and valuing all forms of biodiversity. PLoS Biol 16 11 : e This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Which dimensions of biodiversity do we, as a society, value and wish to protect?
In my view, biodiversity is worthy of protection for at least three reasons. First, all living organisms have a fundamental intrinsic right to existence. Third, biodiversity provides the raw material for evolution by natural selection that allows populations to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
The Convention on Biological Diversity and the Aichi targets capture these three dimensions in recognition of their importance for sustaining a good life on earth for present and future generations. Strangely, biodiversity indicators used to describe the state of the environment and measure progress toward the Aichi targets consider only native species [ 2 ]. Most biodiversity assessments and indicators provide no justification for why non-native species are excluded, so one can only speculate as to the reasons for this oversight.
One possibility is that biodiversity indicators were established by biologists who, at the time, implicitly assumed that species had no value outside of their historical range and, further, that this opinion was universal. Today, most conservation biologists understand the potential risks that non-native species represent, but a growing number also appreciate that non-native species contribute to all three dimensions of biodiversity mentioned above [ 3 — 6 ].
It becomes interesting to consider not only the circumstances under which the effects of non-native species could be net positive but also the possibility that they might even play critical roles in supporting human life in the near future. They appear to support the idea of including non-native species in assessments that describe the state of the environment as long as the origin of species is specified.
But they appear to resist the idea of integrating non-native species into conservation indicators, based on the concern that this will dilute the message that non-native species can sometimes cause harm.
Implicitly, they are willing to disregard all non-native species based on the assumption that, as a group, they do more harm than good. As a conservation biologist, I am aware that a minority of non-native species can become problematic, and I favour policies that carefully screen species to prevent the importation of novel species likely to cause undesirable change [ 8 ]. But the mere possibility that some non-native species will become problematic does not give us license to ignore the positive contributions of non-native species already established in their host ecosystems [e.
Conservation targets integrate both scientific and normative components. An interdisciplinary approach such as the ecosystem services method, which can incorporate biological, social, health, and economic factors, and the preferences of various stakeholders, could be used to prioritise the components of nature e.
Arguments to exclude non-native species from such a process overlook opportunities for the future, run counter to internationally agreed upon goals e. Funding: The author received no specific funding for this work. Provenance: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. References 1. Assessing nature's contributions to people. Schlaepfer MA. Do non-native species contribute to biodiversity? PLoS Biol. Introduced species are not always the enemy of conservation.
Vellend M. The Biodiversity Conservation Paradox. American Scientist. The potential conservation value of non-native species. Conserv Biol. Species invasions exceed extinctions on islands worldwide: A comparative study of plants and birds. Am Nat. Biodiversty assessments: Origin matters. View Article Google Scholar 8. Introduced species policy, management, and future research needs.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. View Article Google Scholar 9. Invisible megafauna. How complete is our knowledge of the ecosystem services impacts of Europe's top 10 invasive species? Acta Oecologica. View Article Google Scholar Scientific and normative foundations for the valuation of alien-species impacts: thirteen core principles. Impact of Biological Invasions on Ecosystem Services. Cham, Switzerland: Springer;
Biodiversity is the amount of variety of life on Earth. It is the number of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Our biodiversity is very important to the well-being of our planet. Most cultures, at least at some time, have recognized the importance of conserving natural resources. Many still do, but many do not. How do we replace lost biodiversity? Our environments and the species that live in them need a diverse population of genes.
As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity i. Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity—HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity , HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities.
In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to such new challenges as climate change. The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse Earth. Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies attempt to recognize this as being integral to any approach to preserving biodiversity. Almost all cultures have their roots in our biological diversity in some way or form.
Biodiversity is the abbreviated word for ―biological diversity” (bio-life or living organisms, Food: Many wild plant species could make important contributions to human food suppliers either Source: drugtruthaustralia.org%20content/eee/EVS.pdf.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. We as a species are rapidly altering the world that provides our evolutionary and ecological context. The consequences of these changes are such that they demand our urgent attention. The large-scale problems of unprecedented population growth and inappropriate development are degrading the land, water, and atmosphere, and progressively extinguishing a broad array of the Earth's organisms and the habitats they inhabit.
Тела танцующих слились так плотно, что он не мог рассмотреть, во что они одеты. Британского флага нигде не было. Ясно, что ему не удастся влиться в это море, которое раздавит его, как утлую лодчонку. Рядом с ним кого-то рвало. Хорошенькая картинка. Беккер застонал и начал выбираться из расписанного краской из баллончиков зала.
Дэвид грустно вздохнул: - Потому-то я и звоню. Речь идет о нашей поездке. Нам придется ее отложить. - Что-о? - Сьюзан окончательно проснулась. - Прости.
То есть… как ты их вскрываешь. Сьюзан улыбнулась: - Уж ты-то мог бы это понять. Это все равно что изучать иностранный язык. Сначала текст воспринимается как полная бессмыслица, но по мере постижения законов построения его структуры начинает появляться смысл. Беккер понимающе кивнул, но ему хотелось знать. Используя вместо классной доски салфетки ресторана Мерлутти или концертные программы, Сьюзан дала этому популярному и очень привлекательному преподавателю первые уроки криптографии. Она начала с совершенного квадрата Юлия Цезаря.
Key messages ✽ ✽ Biodiversity is the term used to encompass the variety of all living organisms on earth, including their genetic diversity.Royce P. 08.06.2021 at 14:19
To browse Academia.Aureo J. 09.06.2021 at 15:05
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