File Name: natural killer cells and cancer .zip
Natural killer cells , also known as NK cells or large granular lymphocytes LGL , are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role of NK cells is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. NK cells provide rapid responses to virus -infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection , and respond to tumor formation. Typically, immune cells detect the major histocompatibility complex MHC presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing the death of the infected cell by lysis or apoptosis. NK cells are unique, however, as they have the ability to recognize and kill stressed cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction. They were named "natural killers" because of the notion that they do not require activation to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of MHC class 1.
Metrics details. The tumor microenvironment is highly complex, and immune escape is currently considered an important hallmark of cancer, largely contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. Named for their capability of killing target cells autonomously, natural killer NK cells serve as the main effector cells toward cancer in innate immunity and are highly heterogeneous in the microenvironment. Most current treatment options harnessing the tumor microenvironment focus on T cell-immunity, either by promoting activating signals or suppressing inhibitory ones. The limited success achieved by T cell immunotherapy highlights the importance of developing new-generation immunotherapeutics, for example utilizing previously ignored NK cells.
Although tumors also evolve to resist NK cell-induced cytotoxicity, cytokine supplement, blockade of suppressive molecules and genetic.
Anti-tumour monoclonal antibodies are a promising immunotherapeutic strategy against cancer that works by activating natural killer NK cells. European researchers proposed methods to overcome intrinsic heterogeneity issues and improve antibody-mediated immunotherapy through the adoptive transfer of NK cells. NK cells exhibit direct cytotoxic function and are known to control the progression of cancer cells. This takes place through a mechanism known as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ADCC , by which NK cells attack cells coated with antibodies. To develop strategies that improve anti-tumour responses and reduce NK cell exhaustion, scientists with the CINK project investigated the mechanisms by which NK cell activation is regulated.
However, as cells of the innate immune system, NK cells are classified as group I Innate Lymphocytes ILCs and respond quickly to a wide variety of pathological challenges. NK cells are best known for killing virally infected cells, and detecting and controlling early signs of cancer. As well as protecting against disease, specialized NK cells are also found in the placenta and may play an important role in pregnancy. NK cells were first noticed for their ability to kill tumour cells without any priming or prior activation in contrast to cytotoxic T cells, which need priming by antigen presenting cells. While on patrol NK cells constantly contact other cells.
In this review, we overview the main features and func- tions of NK cells, focusing on their role in cell-mediated immune response to tumor cells. In parallel, we.