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Uses And Gratification Model Pdf

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Billions of people around the world are experiencing new ways of interacting with people using the social networking sites SNS.

Over the past few decades, technology has truly revolutionized our lives. Perhaps one of the biggest transformations has occurred within mass communication. Prior to the industrial revolution, society had a virtually nonexistent form of mass media.

uses and gratification theory

Billions of people around the world are experiencing new ways of interacting with people using the social networking sites SNS. With the heavy traffic and technological capabilities, SNS offers remarkable gratifications to its users, but there is a lack of knowledge about how gratifications play a role in usage intention and whether there are other factors that influence this relationship.

Therefore, this study aims to fulfill these research gaps. To explore these issues in depth, this study conceptualizes a comprehensive framework based on the theory of uses and gratification UGT , habit and the subjective norm. Structural equation model is used to analyze the survey data. The results of the study reveal that UGT has a significant direct effect on usage intention. Furthermore, user habit and subjective norm play an important mediating role in the relationship between UGT and usage intention.

The proposed framework would extensively contribute to the SNS literature and managerial insights by integrating personal and social factors in determining the user acceptance of the media. Hossain, M. Alamgir Hossain. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited.

Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. Most of these social networking sites SNS offer users the opportunity to present individuals and connect them to existing and new social network users. Facebook is well suited to social interaction and information sharing in the virtual world Al-Jabri et al.

Facebook users can access, share information, photos, or videos, and upload-download information at any time frequently from online groups and communities to fulfill shared interests. Facebook has a decidedly strong social impact, because of the instant presence in the lives of its users. However, with the rapid explosion of the release of new social apps with a wide variety of functions, Facebook has shown a decline in use because of privacy issues, especially among teenagers Cao et al.

Therefore, it is sensible to recognize the factors that affect continuous usage intention of SNS and the factors that intervene in the usage behavior. In particular, this study examines the usage intention of Facebook users through the judgment of the uses and gratification UGT and with some mediation effects in the context.

Facebook was the first SNS to surpass 1 billion registered accounts and currently has 2. In May , the total number of minutes spent on Facebook every month was million, with an average time spent 18 minutes per visit and 3 million average messages sent in every 20 min Statistic Brain, Few research efforts have invested in studying continuous usage intention of SNS by adopting different theories, such as motivation theory, expectation-confirmation theory, social capital theory and so on.

Earlier studies have revealed that different gratifications, such as social gratifications, content gratifications, and hedonic gratifications are the driving forces in predicting the behavioral intentions of users. Moreover, previous studies have examined that habit Limayem et al.

Indeed, few researchers have discovered separately the effects of UGT, habit and subjective norm on usage intention Al-Jabri et al. Therefore, it would be more relevant to examine the usage intention of SNS under the lens of UGT along with multiple mediation effects.

To fill these research gaps, this study borrows the UGT from the field of media research and integrates the theory of habit and subjective norm into the Facebook context, attempting to examine how the usage intention is measured by UGT with multiple mediating effects.

This study, however, advances previous studies and appeals to the following contributions. Third, the important takeaway from the findings is that taking into account these mediating variables provides an alternative understanding of divergent results in previous research works on usage intention of Facebook, potentially important for other SNSs. Section 2 presents the historical background and the development of hypotheses.

Then, Section 3 puts forward the research design, followed by empirical results in Section 4. The paper concludes in Section 5, with extensive discussions, implications and limitations.

For example, Cheung et al. They also noted that users are very much aware of their needs and their behavior is goal-directed. Researchers have incorporated UGT to measure the motivations behind using the different traditional media like newspaper, telephones, radios, etc. Recently, it has been widely used to explore new media and communication technologies such as SNS Al-Jabri et al. The UGT approach facilitates a homological network for research rather than providing a predefined set of constructs.

SNS users often intend to meet certain personal and social needs such as information seeking, social interaction, freedom of expression, enjoyment, social presence and belongingness and social identity Cheung and Lee, ; Cao et al. Cheung et al. Dhir and Tsai also incorporated UGT to understand the intensity of Facebook use and suggested that UGT process plays a significant role in predicting the intensity of Facebook usage.

In addition, researchers considered different gratifications in predicting the behavioral intention of users. For example, Dhir and Tsai argued that the intensity of Facebook use is motivated by following gratifications: entertainment, exposure, escape, information seeking and social influence.

Similar studies by Cheung et al. Another study based on mobile social networks illustrated that user behavior is directed by different types of gratification such as, cognitive gratification, affective gratification, tension-released gratification and social gratification Gan et al.

In addition, Hsiao et al. Based on the studies mentioned above, this study expects a significant positive relationship between UGT and usage intention of Facebook.

Hereby, it is hypothesized that: H1. UGT has significant positive direct effect on usage intention. Habit is a learned sequence of actions that have automatic responses to certain cues, and that are functional to obtain specific objectives or end-states Verplanken and Aarts, From the definition, the first feature of habit indicates a repetition history. The more frequent the behavior of an individual, the more likely it becomes habitual.

To explain the use behavior of information technology, the habit has been included in some continuous intention analyzes, and it is found that those who frequently use information technology devices, their behavior becomes automatic manner Limayem et al. Habit theory supports the relationship between habit and usage intention with the integration of the UGT approach Hsiao et al. In the context of information technology, intention and habit have been considered a major antecedent of behavior; however, the relationship among habit, behavior and intention has been quite controversial Limayem et al.

Habit can have both a direct and interactive effect on behavior. While some researchers such as Hsiao et al. In contrast, some have argued that habit acts as moderating variable in the relationship between intentions and the continued use of WWW Limayem et al. They have insisted that habit has relatively less conceptual overlap with intentions that provide additional explanatory power to the use of information technology.

Furthermore, in context of mobile SNS, Gan et al. Limayem et al. In contrast, Shiau and Luo portrayed that habit has a significant effect on satisfaction. The strong argument is that habit and satisfaction are distinct and parallel, so they do not have a causal relationship Woisetschlager et al. In the social media context, when users frequently use Facebook, they may use this service without making conscious decisions and their use becomes repetitive, thus increasing the usage intention.

Taking into account the conflicting conclusions of previous studies, this study intends to test the effects of habit as a mediating variable on usage intention, and therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed: H2. Habit has the mediation effect on the relationship between UGT and usage intention.

Subjective norm is caused by the normative beliefs that the individual characteristics of what relevant others expect of a person with respect to continued use of information technology and their motivation is to comply with those beliefs Karahanna et al.

According to Choi and Chung , subjective norm refers to the degree to which an individual perceives the demands of significant or referent other individuals on him to use social media. Basically, the subjective norm is the perceived social pressure to act on a certain behavior and the motivation to comply with those pressures Hyde and White, In addition, the perceived social pressure is significantly correlated with the behavioral intentions of individual Teo, This study considers subjective norm as significantly identical to compliance with the use of social media.

In social media research, the reference is appeared to be dominant. Before users have previous usage experience, second-hand information, especially that of the primary reference group friends and family , is important for using new media. In this context, accepting and using the SNS is inherently related to other people. Choi and Chung incorporated the subjective norm in their study of the SNS technology acceptance model, and state that the subjective norm establishes a good predictor of usage intention through perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

Moreover, Cheung and Lee have portrayed, we-intention to use of online SNS is most significantly affected by the subjective norm. Similar studies by Teo and Cheung et al. Managing social networks with others in the virtual world will be considered a universal trend, and the popularity of SNS should generally encourage users to engage in the same activity.

However, Karahanna et al. In this contradictory context, current study expected that a person who perceives the use of the SNS as normative has a stronger intention to engage in the SNS. This study proposes that usage intention could be comprehensively examined by the mediated effect of subjective norm that will provide an additional understanding of the usage intention of SNS and subjective norm.

Hereby, it is hypothesized that: H3. Subjective norm has the mediation effect on the relationship between UGT and usage intention. The survey questionnaire was divided into three main parts; first-order constructs for UGT, higher-order constructs for the measurement model, and the demographic elements. UGT has been measured as a second order construct through first-order constructs; enjoyment, passing time, information seeking, self-presentation, social presence and social interaction.

The higher-order constructs for the measurement model comprises four constructs; UGT, user habit, subjective norm and usage intention. Basic demographic elements were included to see the descriptive and demographic distribution of respondents.

This study derives the measurements of all constructs from previous studies with some modifications to fit the constructs in the market context. The measurement scales of enjoyment, passing time, information seeking, self-presentation, social presence and social interaction are borrowed from Zhou et al. The measurement of subjective norm, user habit and continuous usage intention of Facebook comes from Al-Jabri et al.

Table I shows the detailed view of the measurements objects used in this study. A seven-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree 1 to strongly agree 7 with multi-item perceptual scales were used to measure the constructs. The empirical data were collected using a structured questionnaire by online survey method.

Participants were guided to the online questionnaire by clicking on the questionnaire link provided. The objectives of the study and the instructions were indicated on the first page of the questionnaire, and it was also acknowledged that all the information provided would be kept confidential.

Initially, a pilot study was conducted to test the questionnaire whether the instructions and meanings of the questions were simple, clear and beneficial to the subjects. A total of 25 respondents were taken in the pilot study, and changes were made accordingly.

All questionnaires were reviewed and incomplete or unlikely responses were removed. The final survey was conducted during the month of January to February in Bangladesh, and samples were collected using random sampling. After cleaning the data and deleting the invalid responses, valid responses were taken for the final analysis.

uses and gratification theory

The Uses and Gratification theory discusses the effects of the media on people. It explains how people use the media for their own need and get satisfied when their needs are fulfilled. In other words, it can be said that the theory argues what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Also, this theory is in contradiction to the Magic Bullet theory , which states that the audience is passive. Even for communication, say — interpersonal, people refer to the media for the topic to discuss among themselves. By referring the media, they gain more knowledge and exposure to the world beyond their limited eyesight. People use media for acquiring knowledge, information, facts, etc.


PDF | Some mass communications scholars have contended that uses and gratifications is not a rigorous social science theory. In this article, I.


Uses and Gratifications Theory

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A Review of Theory and Research Based on Uses and Gratifications in HCI

Social media is built upon user-generated content and interactivity between users. Understanding the users within social media is therefore imperative to understanding how social media itself functions. This chapter explores the users of social media in more detail and asks the two key questions of who uses social media, and why they do so.

Uses and Gratifications Theory

Uses and Gratification conceptual model were also proposed both for library and information centers, and for interactive information retrieval systems. Review and analysis of published resources were used as the methodology of the article. Findings showed that UGT is in close connection with five laws of library science and their web version on one hand, and the user-oriented paradigm on the other hand. Therefore, the components of uses and gratification conceptual model of knowledge and information science in traditional and modern contexts consist of vast types of information needs, society, end users' features, information gratification sought, information gratification obtained, relevance gratification, library and information centers, and interactive information retrieval system uses.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how various gratifications obtained in the social media context affect customer participation, and its sequential effect on brand trust, brand commitment and word of mouth WOM in social media brand communities. The data were collected from respondents who used social media using a survey method. The data were assessed using AMOS with structural equation modeling. The findings depicted that among all gratifications obtained in the social media context, information seeking, incentive and brand likeability strongly affect customer participation, which sequentially affect brand trust, commitment and WOM in social media brand communities. In the context of social media brand communities, brand trust partially mediates the relationship between customer participation and its two outcome variables brand commitment and WOM.

Uses and gratification theory of communication explains how people use media to fulfill their needs. Gratification of needs is the most important role of media for humans. People get knowledge, interaction, relaxation, awareness, escape and entertainment through media which they use for interpersonal communication as well. Unlike agenda setting theory , framing theory and priming theory , this theory is about the use of media by humans and not the effect of media. This theory is taken as the contradictory theory to magic bullet theory as this theory takes public to be active whereas magic bullet takes audience as passive respondents. The theory is centered upon users and audience approach.


PDF | This paper was aimed at clarifying the links between Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT) and Knowledge and Information Science in both traditional.


Uses and gratifications theory UGT is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. This communication theory is positivistic in its approach, based in the socio-psychological communication tradition, and focuses on communication at the mass media scale. It assumes that audience members are not passive consumers of media. Rather, the audience has power over their media consumption and assumes an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives.

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Uses and gratifications theory

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