File Name: different types of dreams and their meanings .zip
The subconscious is a hidden world that locks up our deepest secrets. However, when we dream, we are given certain keys that unlock doors to that hidden information. If you let a dream slip out of your conscious awareness, you are letting the code and language to your own subconscious slip away with it.
Some experts think dreams have specific meanings. Others think it's all speculation. We all have dreams, whether you remember them or not. Dreams can be pleasant, happy, frightening, frustrating, calming, boring, bizarre or downright awkward.
Dreams and dreaming have been discussed in diverse areas of philosophy ranging from epistemology to ethics, ontology, and more recently philosophy of mind and cognitive science. This entry provides an overview of major themes in the philosophy of sleep and dreaming, with a focus on Western analytic philosophy, and discusses relevant scientific findings.
Dream skepticism has traditionally been the most famous and widely discussed philosophical problem raised by dreaming see Williams ; Stroud In the Meditations , Descartes uses dreams to motivate skepticism about sensory-based beliefs about the external world and his own bodily existence.
He notes that sensory experience can also lead us astray in commonplace sensory illusions such as seeing things as too big or small. But he does not think such cases justify general doubts about the reliability of sensory perception: by taking a closer look at an object seen under suboptimal conditions, we can easily avoid deception.
By contrast, dreams suggest that even in a seemingly best-case scenario of sensory perception Stroud , deception is possible. There are different ways of construing the dream argument. A strong reading is that Descartes is trapped in a lifelong dream and none of his experiences have ever been caused by external objects the Always Dreaming Doubt ; see Newman A weaker reading is that he is just sometimes dreaming but cannot rule out at any given moment that he is dreaming right now the Now Dreaming Doubt ; see Newman This is still epistemologically worrisome: even though some of his sensory-based beliefs might be true, he cannot determine which these are unless he can rule out that he is dreaming.
Doubt is thus cast on all of his beliefs, making sensory-based knowledge slip out of reach. Importantly, both strong and weak versions of the dream argument cast doubt only on sensory-based beliefs, but leave other beliefs unscathed. Descartes V. Dream arguments have been a staple of philosophical skepticism since antiquity and were so well known that in his objections to the Meditations , Hobbes criticized Descartes for not having come up with a more original argument.
Earlier versions tended to touch upon dreams just briefly and discuss them alongside other examples of sensory deception. For example, in the Theaetetus e , Plato has Socrates discuss a defect in perception that is common to. Dreams also appear in the canon of standard skeptical arguments used by the Pyrrhonists.
Again, dreams and sleep are just one of several conditions including illness, joy, and sorrow that cast doubt on the trusthworthiness of sensory perception Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers; Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism. Augustine Against the Academics ; Confessions thought the dream problem could be contained, arguing that in retrospect, we can distinguish both dreams and illusions from actual perception Matthew chapter 8.
And Montaigne The Apology for Raymond Sebond noted that wakefulness itself teems with reveries and illusions, which he thought were even more epistemologically worrisome than nocturnal dreams. Descartes devoted much more space to the discussion of dreaming and cast it as a unique epistemological threat distinct from both waking illusions and evil genius or brain-in-a-vat-style arguments.
His claim that he has often been deceived by his dreams implies he also saw dreaming as a real-world rather than merely hypothetical threat. This is further highlighted by the intimate, first-person style of the Meditations. For example, Descartes builds up towards dream skepticism by first considering familiar cases of sensory illusions and then deceptively realistic dreams.
Finally, much attention has been devoted to several dreams Descartes reportedly had as a young man. Some believe these dreams embodied theoretical doubts he developed in the Discourse and Meditations Baillet ; Leibniz IV; Cole ; Keefer Hacking suggests that for Descartes, dream skepticism was not just a philosophical conundrum but a source of genuine doubt.
In the Meditations , after discussing the dream argument, Descartes raises the possibility of an omnipotent evil genius determined to deceive us even in our most basic beliefs. Contrary to dream deception, Descartes emphasizes that the evil genius hypothesis is a mere fiction. Still, it radicalizes the dream doubt in two respects.
One, where the dream argument left the knowability of certain general truths intact, these are cast in doubt by the evil genius hypothesis. Two, where the dream argument, at least on the weaker reading, involves just temporary deception, the evil genius has us permanently deceived. One modernized version, the brain-in-a-vat thought experiment, says that if evil scientists placed your brain in a vat and stimulated it just right, your conscious experience would be exactly the same as if you were still an ordinary, embodied human being Putnam In the Matrix -trilogy Chalmers , Matrixers live unbeknownst to themselves in a computer simulation.
Unlike the brain-in-a-vat , they have bodies that are kept alive in pods, and flaws in the simulation allow some of them to bend its rules to their advantage. Unlike dream deception, which is often cast as a regularly recurring actuality cf. Windt , brain-in-a-vat-style arguments are often thought to be merely logically or nomologically possible. However, there might be good reasons for thinking that we actually live in a computer simulation Bostrom , and if we lend some credence to radical skeptical scenarios, this may have consequences for how we act Schwitzgebel Even purely hypothetical skeptical scenarios may enhance their psychological force by capitalizing on the analogy with dreams.
At the end of the Sixth Meditation , Descartes suggests a solution to the dream problem that is tied to a reassessment of what it is like to dream. Contrary to his remarks in the First Meditation , he notes that dreams are only rarely connected to waking memories and are often discontinuous, as when dream characters suddenly appear or disappear.
He then introduces the coherence test:. But when I perceive objects with regard to which I can distinctly determine both the place whence they come, and that in which they are, and the time at which they appear to me, and when, without interruption, I can connect the perception I have of them with the whole of the other parts of my life, I am perfectly sure that what I thus perceive occurs while I am awake and not during sleep.
Meditation VI. For all practical purposes, he has now found a mark by which dreaming and waking can be distinguished cf. Meditation I. Still, many of his critics were not convinced this helped his case against the skeptic.
Both the coherence test and the criterion of clarity and distinctness would then be unreliable. How considerations of empirical plausibility impact the dream argument continues to be a matter of debate. Grundmann appeals to scientific dream research to introduce an introspective criterion: when we introspectively notice that we are able to engage in critical reflection, we have good reason to think that we are awake and not dreaming. However, this assumes critical reasoning to be uniformly absent in dreams.
If attempts at critical reasoning do occur in dreams and if they generally tend to be corrupted, the introspective criterion might again be problematic Windt , a. There are also cases in which even after awakening, people mistake what was in fact a dream for reality Wamsley et al. At least in certain situations and for some people, dream deception might be a genuine cause of concern Windt a.
Dennett These are all phenomenal states: there is something it is like to be in these states for the subject of experience cf. Nagel To ask about dream experience is to ask whether it is like something to dream while dreaming, and whether what it is like is similar to or relevantly different from corresponding waking experiences.
Cartesian dream skepticism depends on a seemingly innocent background assumption: that dreams are conscious experiences. If this is false, then dreams are not deceptive experiences during sleep and we cannot be deceived, while dreaming, about anything at all.
Whether dreams are experiences is a major question for the ontology of dreams and closely bound up with dream skepticism.
The most famous argument denying that dreams are experiences was formulated by Norman Malcolm , Today, his position is commonly rejected as implausible. Still, it set the tone for the analysis of dreaming as a target phenomenon for philosophy of mind.
Malcolm Malcolm argued that retrospective dream reports are the sole criterion for determining whether a dream occurred and there is no independent way of verifying dream reports. In particular, he denied dream reports imply the occurrence of experiences such as thoughts, feelings, or judgements in sleep:. If a man had certain thoughts and feelings in a dream it no more follows that he had those thoughts and feelings while asleep, than it follows from his having climbed a mountain in a dream that he climbed a mountain while asleep.
Sometimes he seems to be saying that conscious experience is conceptually tied to wakefulness Malcolm ; other times he claims that terms such as mental activity or conscious experience are vague and it is senseless to apply them to sleep and dreams Malcolm A particularly counterintuitive consequence of his view is that there can be no observational evidence for the occurrence of dreams in sleep aside from dream reports.
This includes behavioral evidence such as sleepwalking or sleeptalking, which he thought showed the person was partially awake; as he also thought dreams occur in sound sleep, such sleep behaviors were largely irrelevant to the investigation of dreaming proper.
He also claimed adopting a physiological criterion of dreaming such as EEG measures of brain activity during sleep would change the concept of dreaming, which he argued was tied exclusively to dream reporting. Putnam : It does not imply that nothing goes on in our minds while we dream.
Whether dream thoughts, feelings or beliefs should count as real instances of their kind now becomes an open question, and in any case there is no conceptual contradiction involved in saying one has experiences while asleep and dreaming. To ask about dream experience is also to ask whether there is something it is like to dream during sleep as opposed to there just being something it is like to remember dreaming after awakening.
Dennett claims the cassette theory and the view that dreams are experiences can deal equally well with empirical evidence for instance on the relationship between dreaming and REM sleep. The cassette theory is preferable because it is more parsimonious, positing only an unconscious dream composition process rather than an additional conscious presentation process in sleep. For Dennett, the important point is that it is impossible to distinguish between the two rival theories based on dream recall; the question of dream experience should be settled by independent empirical evidence.
For Dennett, the unreliability of dream recall also is not unique, but exemplifies a broader problem with memory reports: we generally cannot use retrospective recall to distinguish conscious experience from memory insertion Dennett ; see also Emmett Because the dream seemed to systematically build up to this dramatic conclusion, which in turn coincided with a sudden external event, he suggested that such cases were best explained as instantaneous memory insertions experienced at the moment of awakening.
Similarly, Gregory described dreams are psychical explosions occurring at the moment of awakening. The trustworthiness of dream reports continues to be contentious.
Rosen argues that dream reports are often fabricated and fail to accurately describe experiences occurring during sleep. By contrast, Windt , a argues that dream reports can at least under certain conditions such as in laboratory studies, when dreams are reported immediately after awakening by trained participants be regarded as trustworthy sources of evidence with respect to previous experience during sleep.
Unlike Malcolm, many believe that whether dreams are experiences is an empirical question; and unlike Dennett, the predominant view is that the empirical evidence does indeed support this claim Flanagan ; Metzinger ; Revonsuo ; Rosen ; Windt , a. A first reason for thinking that dreams are experiences during sleep is the relationship between dreaming and REM rapid eye movement sleep. Following sleep onset, periods of non-REM or NREM sleep including slow wave sleep so called because of the presence of characteristic slow-wave, high-voltage EEG activity are followed by periods of high-frequency, low-voltage activity during REM sleep.
REM sleep is additionally characterized by rapid eye movements and a near-complete loss of muscle tone Dement 27—50; Jouvet The alignment between conscious experience on the one hand and wake-like brain activity and muscular paralysis on the other hand would seem to support the experiential status of dreams as well as explain the outward passivity that typically accompanies them. Reports of dreaming are in fact much more frequent following REM REM reports tend to be more elaborate, vivid, and emotionally intense, whereas NREM reports tend to be more thought-like, confused, non-progressive, and repetitive Hobson et al.
Attempts to identify dreaming with mental activity during REM sleep have not, however, been successful, and many now hold that dreams can occur in all stages of sleep e. In recent years there has been renewed interest in NREM sleep for the study of dreaming Noreika et al.
This suggests the inference from the physiology of REM sleep to the phenomenology of dreaming is not straightforward. A second line of evidence comes from lucid dreams, or dreams in which one knows one is dreaming and often has some level of dream control Voss et al. The term lucid dreaming was coined by van Eeden , but Aristotle On Dreams already noted that one can sometimes be aware while dreaming that one is dreaming.
Scientific evidence that lucid dreaming is real and a genuine sleep phenomenon comes from laboratory studies Hearne ; LaBerge et al.
The self-organization theory of dreaming proposes that the sleeping brain is a self-organizing system that can combine discontinuous and incongruous neuronal signals i. This theory also implies that dreams are not independently functional but rather a coproduct of the sleeping brain, reflecting the dreamer's physiological and psychological activities such as memory consolidation, emotion regulation, and reception of external stimuli Zhang, By contrast, Freud regarded dreams as a royal road to the unconscious; dream interpretation has thus been an important psychoanalytic technique. His theory of dreams mainly refers to two key points: a what are the materials of a dream? The answers to these questions are closely related to an understanding of dream interpretation.
The question of why we dream has fascinated philosophers and scientists for thousands of years. Despite scientific inquiry into the function of dreams, we still don't have a solid answer for why we do it. But, while much remains uncertain about dreaming, many experts have developed theories on the purpose of dreams and new empirical research is providing greater clarity. Some of the more prominent dream theories contend that the function of dreaming is to consolidate memories, process emotions, express our deepest desires, and gain practice confronting potential dangers. Many suggest that we dream due to a combination of these and other reasons rather than adhering to a singular theory.
Dream interpretation books pdf The bible is not the only ancient literary source that records the interpretation of dreams. Where people fly and water runs uphill: using dreams to tap the wisdom of the unconscious. Dream interpretation during early psychoanalysis elicited associations from dream interpretation books pdf the patient but also involved authoritarian interpretations focused on whatever dream interpretation books pdf the analyst believed to be the key human. The interpretation of dreams: the complete and definitive text by sigmund freud.
While scientists have been studying dreams for years, the images that appear while we snooze are still incredibly misunderstood. When asleep, our minds are active, creating stories and images that can be either vivid or fleeting; nonsensical or seemingly prophetic; terrifying or absolutely mundane. Why do we dream? We may not have definitive answers, but there are several types of dreams and themes, and different factors that cause these dreams to occur.
Dreams and dreaming have been discussed in diverse areas of philosophy ranging from epistemology to ethics, ontology, and more recently philosophy of mind and cognitive science. This entry provides an overview of major themes in the philosophy of sleep and dreaming, with a focus on Western analytic philosophy, and discusses relevant scientific findings. Dream skepticism has traditionally been the most famous and widely discussed philosophical problem raised by dreaming see Williams ; Stroud
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