File Name: advantages and disadvantages of composting .zip
Composting is a recognised and sustainable way to break down organic waste into a material that can be reused in a wide range of industries. There are different methods to carry out composting. You should choose a method that is suitable for the type and quantity of waste you will be handling.
This process recycles various organic materials otherwise regarded as waste products. A good compost is rich in plant nutrients and beneficial organisms. Compost is used to improve the soil fertility in gardens , landscaping , horticulture , urban agriculture and organic farming.
Hundreds of tons of biodegradable organic waste are being generated in cities and towns creating disposal problems. This waste can be converted into valuable compost by applying vermicomposting technology. The vermitechnology has been revived worldwide with diverse ecological objectives such as waste management, soil detoxification and regeneration and sustainable agriculture. A great attention should be paid to the production of ecologically pure food and increase of agricultural crop productivity using organic fertilizers to protect soil and crops from contamination with nitrates, phosphates and other mineral fertilizers.
Promotion of vermitechnology in Georgia is essential in order to improve agricultural production quality and increase yield. Vermicomposting is widely practiced in various countries. The vermicompost may be used for farming, landscaping, for making compost tea or for selling. Some of these operations produce worms for fishing and home vermicomposting. However above listed advantages of vermicomposting does not mean to trust blindly bioproduct producers and not to listen to the opposite opinion of other professionals.
Thus, what are the disadvantages of vermicomposting? Risk assessment is a new relatively young, yet rapidly developing interdisciplinary scientific trend worldwide.
Today we can say with confidence that application of any technique of waste management involves many risks. The risks associated with waste management are described quite well in scientific literature. To identify the risks associated with composting of various organic wastes, the dynamics of the process itself should be clearly understood. The paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of this complex process and provides the recommendations for those who are willing to be engaged in vermicomposting.
Key words: Vermitechnology, earthworms, microorganisms, fertilizers, microscopic fungi, bioproducts. Fertility is a significant property of an agricultural soil.
Soil fertility gets affected by excessive use of chemical fertilizers. The natural fertility of the untreated soil can be achieved through the biological cycle. The saprophagous soil invertebrates are directly involved in the transformation of soil organic compounds. One of the most important functions of the soil inhabitants is their input in the soil covering formation.
Long-term investigations showed that earthworms are the most numerous and active soil residents. By digging the subsoil, loosening and threading it with tunnels worms gradually deepen the topsoil layer, ripping up fine mineral particles and depositing them as castings on or near the surface of the soil.
They constantly add nutrients to the zone in which plant roots feed and deliver mineral substances that would otherwise remain largely unavailable to most plants. In this process, they are indispensable. The soil is a natural habitat for many living organisms - 1m3 of soil can be inhabited by organisms. It should be noted that number of microorganisms in the earthworms' waste is greater than in organic matter which they consumed. The soil microorganisms multiply by several times in their faeces [1, 2].
As organic matter passes through their intestines, it gets fragmented and consumed with microorganisms. Increased microbial activity facilitates the cycling of nutrients from organic matter and their conversion into forms that can be readily consumed by plants. Thus, the above mentioned symbiosis of earthworms and microorganisms can be proved. Earthworms use the byproducts of the metabolism of microorganisms and create necessary conditions for friendly microorganisms in their intestine and destroy pathogens .
Hundreds of tons of biodegradable organic waste are being generated in cities and towns in the country, creating disposal problems. This approach reduces pollution, provides a valuable substitute for chemical fertilizers and induces less harmful impact on the environment. One of the main processes of vermitechnology is vermicomposting. Vermicompost is an excellent nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner containing water-soluble nutrients.
Vermicomposting is widely practiced in various countries, the vermicompost may be used for farming, landscaping, for creating compost tea or for selling. Some of these operations produce worms for bait and home vermicomposting . We would like to draw your attention to the vermicomposting and to the vermitechnology in general, and inform the society about its importance for the ecologically pure and safe bioproduction.
Thus, the positive impact of humus on soil productivity and plant growth is beyond any doubts. Besides soil cultivation, earthworms maybe used as forage for poultry breeding, natural live bait for fishing as well as in medicine. If the current state of agriculture is taken into account the development of bio-humus and vermiculture production is undoubtedly important in Georgia . Bio-humus is times more efficient compared to traditional natural fertilizers. Bio-humus is a concentrated fertilizer that contains all necessary nutritional substances and microelements for plant growth and includes a large quantity of humus compounds.
The main advantage of bio-humus in comparison with manure and vermicomposts is that humus content is times higher. Bio-humus is an unique microbiological fertilizer in which a microorganism community - the basis of soil fertility inhabits in large quantities. Bio-humus usage is particularly effective for very contaminated and degraded soils. Bio-humus input in soil is provided both in the process of planting locally or sowing, and also on a surface with a subsequent treatment.
Bio-humus does not contain pathogenic micro flora, helminths ovum, weed seeds and heavy metals. Bio-humus consumption by plants is easy and gradually within the whole life cycle period. Products after using the bio-humus grow ecologically safe with excellent taste and marketable agricultural produce, flowers become more colorful and flavored. Usage of a sufficient amount of bio-humus not less than 0. The fertility of the land determines the presence of humus than the more - the better.
According to the content of humus manure is not the best type of organic fertilizer. Vermicompost is the product of the technological recycling of organic waste by worms. Worms recycle organic material - manure or compost faster and more completely than the soil microorganisms in the composting process.
Absorbing together with soil a huge amount of crop residues, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, earthworms digest them, highlighting the coprolite with alarge amount of humus, its own micro flora, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and other biologically active substances that inhibit pathogenic micro flora.
During this process organic matter loses its smell, disinfected, gets granular form and pleasant scent of the earth. As vermicompost exceeds times manure and compost in the content of humus that proves its main advantage. The main nutrients in bio-humus are compounds of humic acids and contain all the necessary macro-and micronutrients for plant. The elements necessary for plant nutrition, which contain in biohumus interact with the mineral components of soil and form complicated compounds.
Thus, they are securely stored from washing; slowly dissolve in water, providing nourishing of plants for a long time. These advantages of vermicompost do not give us the right blindly trust the producers of bioproducts and not to listen to the opposite opinion of other professionals.
And thus, what are the disadvantages of composting? Precisely in such cases we say that we have to find a middle way, or it is necessary to find a way out. As it has been already noted, a preparation of various ecologically clean composts has acquired a widespread popularity in recent years. A new field - organic farming has emerged. Its adherents actively use compost in farms, trying to do without chemical fertilizers and pesticides. In European countries the general methods of collecting and recycling of household organic waste are introduced everywhere among the population to produce a necessary amount of composts.
For this purpose, as a rule, special containers or tanks are collected centrally and the whole process is controlled. The method of composting with the help of earthworms called vermitechnological for vermicomposts production - a new generation of organic fertilizers became the most popular.
The interest in composting in Georgia was rising over the last few years. The idea of organic farming has inspired many people, but nevertheless, it is almost never performed professionally, and especially under the control of professionals. It is considered that the composting is an environmentally clean process which allows, on the one hand - recycle waste and on the other hand - obtain organic fertilizer.
But is it really safe, especially for people involved in this process? Moreover, there may be adverse results that will facilitate the rejection of composting on the whole. Thus, it is necessary to shed the light on the risks encountered during composting. The methodology for risk assessment is new, relatively young but rapidly developing worldwide an interdisciplinary scientific trend. Firstly, it was used in the USA from the 80s of the last century.
Nowadays it is widely introduced in most developed countries and recommended by the World Health Organization WHO as the leading tool in determining the quantitative damage to health associated with exposure to adverse environmental factors. Today we can say that the waste management using any technique involves many risks. These risks are described quite well by different scientists [6, 7].
To identify the risk assessment of the composting of varies of organic waste, you should clearly imagine the dynamics of the process of composting itself. Composting is a dynamic process that occurs through the activity of the community of living organisms of different groups: microflora - bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, yeasts, algae; microfauna — protozoa;macroflora - higher fungi and macrofauna - diplopoda, mites, springtails, worms, ants, termites, spiders, beetles.
In this process not only bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes are actively involved, but also the invertebrates play a significant role. These are the main soil habitants: ants, beetles, cutworms, fruit beetle larvae, millipedes, mites, nematodes, earthworms, earwig, woodlice, springtails, spiders, enchytraeids white worms and others. Many soil animals make a major contribution to the process of composting material in terms of its physical grinding.
The end product so-called compost can then be used as soil conditioner or for several other purposes. Composting can be regarded to be quite eco-friendly since through composting, large amounts of materials that would otherwise be treated as trash can be reused instead. Although composting has many important advantages, it also implies some problems. In this article, the pros and cons of composting are examined. One advantage of composting is that compost can significantly improve the soil quality. When it is mixed with other soil components, compost can enhance the nutrient mix, which will likely translate into a better growth pattern of plants.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic digestion vs composting is a question asked by a large number of people. Many of our readers who are familiar with composting, but who are thinking more widely about the subject of recycling organic waste and have just heard about Anaerobic Digestion want to know the anaerobic digestion pros and cons. First of all the two processes are very much the same. Now we make the case for each process by listing the advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic digestion vs composting below:. This disadvantage is the biggest disadvantage of composting!
Compost is organic material that can be added to soil to help plants grow. Food scraps and yard waste together currently make up more than 30 percent of what we throw away, and could be composted instead. Making compost keeps these materials out of landfills where they take up space and release methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
Climate Policy Watcher Survival current. Responses Brigitte What is advanteg of cmpost? Autumn What are the advantages composting method?
Вы на чуть-чуть опоздали. - Ее слова словно повисли в воздухе. Все-таки он опоздал.
Стекла очков блеснули, и его пальцы снова задвигались в воздухе. Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв. Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы. ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Тремя этажами ниже Дэвид Беккер заплатил по счету и со стаканом в руке направился через холл на открытую террасу гостиницы. - Туда и обратно, - пробормотал. Все складывалось совсем не так, как он рассчитывал.
Advantages and disadvantages of composting methods. Guide. Composting is a recognised and sustainable way to break down organic waste into a material.
В этой недоступной для посторонних базе данных хранились чертежи ультрасовременного оружия, списки подлежащих охране свидетелей, данные полевых агентов, подробные предложения по разработке тайных операций. Перечень этой бесценной информации был нескончаем. Всяческие вторжения, способные повредить американской разведке, абсолютно исключались. Конечно, офицеры АНБ прекрасно понимали, что вся информация имеет смысл только в том случае, если она используется тем, кто испытывает в ней необходимость по роду работы. Главное достижение заключалось не в том, что секретная информация стала недоступной для широкой публики, а в том, что к ней имели доступ определенные люди.
- Но как только я узнаю, что вы следите за мной, я немедленно расскажу всю эту историю журналистам. Я расскажу, что Цифровая крепость - это большая липа, и отправлю на дно все ваше мерзкое ведомство. Стратмор мысленно взвешивал это предложение.
Разница равна трем.
Поскольку мы связаны с Интернетом, - объяснял Джабба, - хакеры, иностранные правительства и акулы Фонда электронных границ кружат вокруг банка данных двадцать четыре часа в сутки, пытаясь проникнуть внутрь. - Да, - сказал Фонтейн, - и двадцать четыре часа в сутки наши фильтры безопасности их туда не пускают. Так что вы хотите сказать. Джабба заглянул в распечатку. - Вот что я хочу сказать.
Выбравшись наружу, Беккер оглядел стоянку в поисках такси. Ни одной машины. Он подбежал к крепко сбитому охраннику. - Мне срочно нужно такси. Охранник покачал головой.
Кто бы мог подумать. - Проваливай! - крикнула. - Вон. Беккер совсем забыл о кольце, об Агентстве национальной безопасности, обо всем остальном, проникшись жалостью к девушке. Наверное, родители отправили ее сюда по какой-то школьной образовательной программе, снабдив кредитной карточкой Виза, а все кончилось тем, что она посреди ночи вкалывает себе в туалете наркотик.
- Это должно быть что-то фундаментальное. Соши пожирала глазами текст. - Подождите… сейчас посмотрю… отлично… - Сорок пять секунд! - раздался крик.
PDF | Nowadays mankind is facing acute environmental problems. Hundreds of tons of biodegradable organic waste are being generated in.Alexander H. 04.06.2021 at 11:13
Production planning and control pdf notes on the apostolic church ccsp all in one exam guide pdfWimagerse 04.06.2021 at 23:38
Compost is part of the natural cycle. It is a result of mi- crobial decomposition of dead organic matter under the influence of oxygen (aerobic conditions). With the.Galatee D. 09.06.2021 at 16:24
The main disadvantages of composting are the following: · Windrow and aerated static pile composting require relatively large areas, and odor.Omar H. 13.06.2021 at 05:28
The professional pastry chef pdf free engel and reid physical chemistry 3rd edition pdf