File Name: vitamins and their deficiency diseases chart .zip
Vitamin , any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life. Vitamins are distinct in several ways from other biologically important compounds such as protein s, carbohydrate s, and lipid s. Although these latter substances also are indispensable for proper bodily functions, almost all of them can be synthesized by animals in adequate quantities. Vitamins, on the other hand, generally cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet bodily needs and therefore must be obtained from the diet or from some synthetic source.
For much of human history, diseases of nutrient deficiency were the norm, and in some parts of the world, they still persist. Even into the 20th century, conditions caused by a lack of certain vitamins or minerals were endemic to North America and Europe. Here are a few of those maladies. The disease of pirates: the grey-death. Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C, whose chemical name, ascorbic acid, is derived from the Latin term for scurvy, scorbutus. Even though the disease was known since ancient times described by Hippocrates around BCE , it was not a scourge to those who were largely land-bound.
Even though its causes were unknown, many cultures realized that eating certain herbs could reverse the symptoms, and as long as there was access to fresh food, it was generally kept under control.
Preserved meats and carbohydrates contained no vitamin C, and unlike most animals, the human body is not able to create vitamin C on its own. The early symptoms of scurvy include spongy gums, pain in the joints, and blood spots appearing under the skin.
Many of the early explorers lost great numbers of men to scurvy: Vasco de Gama lost out of men in , and in , Magellan lost out of A few deaths were attributable to other causes, but the vast majority were due to scurvy. These days, scurvy is an extremely rare condition, almost exclusively caused by someone eating a completely unvaried diet. In most cases, high levels of oral supplementation of vitamin C are enough to reverse the condition in a matter of weeks, and death by scurvy is almost unheard of.
This condition is brought on by a lack of vitamin D, which causes the body to be unable to absorb or deposit calcium. Less commonly, it can also be caused by a lack of calcium or phosphorus, but vitamin D deficiency is by far the most common cause. Unlike vitamin C, the human body is able to produce vitamin D, but only if it has the metabolic precursors available to it. When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light such as from the sun , cholesterol in the skin reacts and forms cholecalciferol, which is then processed in the liver and kidneys to create the active form of vitamin D.
But in adults, it both takes significantly longer to develop and tends to cause tip-off signs that something is wrong before bone warping sets in, such as extreme pain in the bones, and unexplained muscle weakness. If left untreated, rickets also can cause an extremely curved back, stunted growth, and frequent fractures—all of which can lead to permanent and debilitating deformity.
This condition is largely confined to Asia, especially in countries where boiled rice is a staple. Although beriberi was known to exist in rice-eating countries several centuries back, its prevalence boomed with the introduction of steam-driven rice-polishing mills from Europe. The superior taste of the milled white rice led many locals to abandon the local unpolished brown rice, and in doing so, abandon their primary source of thiamine. From the s to the turn of the 20th century, people whose plant consumption was limited to the polished white rice would often come down with weakness, pain, weight loss, difficulty walking, and emotional disturbances.
Beriberi became one of the leading causes of mortality in the region. In the s, a doctor named Christiaan Eijkman began researching the causes of this epidemic at a laboratory in the Dutch East Indies now Jakarta, Indonesia , and initially believed that the condition was caused by a bacterial infection. The chickens that ate the white rice came down with beriberi-like symptoms, while the others stayed healthy.
Eijkman also discovered that when the chickens fed white rice were subsequently fed brown rice, they recovered from their illness!
Later dietary testing on prisoners confirmed his results. Recently, beriberi was also seen in Haitian prisons when the prison system began buying imported polished rice from the United States, and stopped feeding their inmates the local brown rice.
What causes blistering of the skin in the sun, pale skin, a craving for raw meat, blood dripping from the mouth, aggression, and insanity? Pellagra is caused by a lack of vitamin B3 niacin.
It was initially believed that either the corn itself, or some insect associated with corn, was causing pellagra. This belief was reinforced when much of France eliminated corn as a food staple and virtually eradicated the condition. Between the era that corn was introduced to Europe the early 16th century and the late 19th century, pellagra was found almost everywhere that poor people subsisted on cornmeal and little else.
The alkali solution freed up the niacin that was present in the grain, but previously inaccessible. Despite the extensive work of Dr.
Today, pellagra is most common in the poorest regions of the world, especially places that rely upon food aid programs. Some countries still ship unfortified cornmeal rather than corn masa nixtamalized corn or fortified cornmeal to developing countries or to their own impoverished populations. China, parts of Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea all have endemic pellagra among their lowest classes.
The discovery of important vitamins and how to produce them has been so significant to human health that many of those who were integral to the discoveries have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine; more than 10 Nobel Prizes have been divided among almost 20 eminent scientists for the discovery or isolation of vitamins A, B1, B12, C, D, E, and K.
Over the second half of the 20th century, after the beginning of widespread supplementation to everyday food items, the incidences of the conditions covered here went down dramatically across much of the world.
Of course, the minerals essential to the human body play similarly important roles in maintaining health. However, humans have not historically had a widespread significant problem acquiring these nutrients, as most plants absorb many minerals from the soil. With the increased processing of our food throughout the 20th century, however, some of these minerals have been lost, and have had to be re-added to the average Western diet through supplementation.
In the rest of the world, displacement due to war, and unfortified food from aid programs, has left survivors with enough calories, but not enough nutrients. Supplementation of assistance food and local fortification of salt and flour is beginning to help give displaced people especially displaced children a new chance at life without these and other nutritional diseases.
Even people with healthy diets benefit from the supplementation of vitamins and minerals in common foodstuffs, and adding the nutrients costs next to nothing. BY Arallyn Primm. Scurvy The disease of pirates: the grey-death. Rickets This condition is brought on by a lack of vitamin D, which causes the body to be unable to absorb or deposit calcium.
Beriberi This condition is largely confined to Asia, especially in countries where boiled rice is a staple. Pellagra What causes blistering of the skin in the sun, pale skin, a craving for raw meat, blood dripping from the mouth, aggression, and insanity? Health science. Subscribe to our Newsletter!
A vitamin is an organic molecule or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients : minerals , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids. For example, there are eight vitamers of vitamin E : four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Download Vitamin Deficiency Diseases List PDF for free from drugtruthaustralia.org using the direct download link given below.
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. B vitamins are a group of eight essential nutrients that play roles in many organs and bodily systems. Although they can work together in the body, they also carry out their own unique functions.
For much of human history, diseases of nutrient deficiency were the norm, and in some parts of the world, they still persist. Even into the 20th century, conditions caused by a lack of certain vitamins or minerals were endemic to North America and Europe. Here are a few of those maladies.
Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly. They are:.
Diseases that occur due to lack of nutrients over a long period are called deficiency diseases or nutritional disease. Deficiency of one or more nutrients can cause diseases or disorders in our body.
Feeling fatigued or cold all the time? American women in particular tend be missing specific and yet extremely common vitamins. Good thing we know what they are and exactly what you should eat to prevent those deficiencies. Women ages 20 to 39 tend to have lower levels of urine iodine compared to women of all other ages. And we actually need about to micrograms mcg of iodine in our diets every day.
Jump to content. The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses.
Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency , whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency. An underlying disorder may be metabolic — as in a genetic defect for converting tryptophan to niacin — or from lifestyle choices that increase vitamin needs, such as smoking or drinking alcohol. Conversely hypervitaminosis refers to symptoms caused by vitamin intakes in excess of needs, especially for fat-soluble vitamins that can accumulate in body tissues. The history of the discovery of vitamin deficiencies progressed over centuries from observations that certain conditions — for example, scurvy — could be prevented or treated with certain foods having high content of a necessary vitamin , to the identification and description of specific molecules essential for life and health.
Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Vitamins are a group of chemically diverse organic compounds that an organism requires for normal metabolism.
Используя вместо классной доски салфетки ресторана Мерлутти или концертные программы, Сьюзан дала этому популярному и очень привлекательному преподавателю первые уроки криптографии. Она начала с совершенного квадрата Юлия Цезаря. Цезарь, объясняла она, был первым в истории человеком, использовавшим шифр.
По спине Сьюзан пробежал холодок. - Конечно, - чуть слышно сказала .
Нуматака терпеть не мог вести дела подобным образом, он ненавидел, когда хозяином положения был кто-то. С самого начала его преследовала мысль, что звонки Северной Дакоты - это западня, попытка японских конкурентов выставить его дураком. Теперь его снова одолевали те же подозрения.
В нем заключено все, что ассоциируется с представлением о молодой католичке: чистота, невинность, природная красота. Чистота заключена в буквальном значении имени - Капля Росы. В ушах зазвучал голос старого канадца.
Nutrient. Function. Deficiency Symptoms. Toxicity Symptoms. Major Food Sources. Vitamin K. Catalyzes prothrombin synthesis; req uired in the synthesis of.Thomas M. 07.06.2021 at 16:32
Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Vitamins, Deficiency Diseases, in small amounts in our diet but their deficiency causes specific diseases. .com/content/dam/dsm/cworld/en_US/documents/drugtruthaustralia.orgBarry J. 11.06.2021 at 12:01
E-books for your preparation. In this section, questions related to Vitamins, about their. Sources, Benefits and Deficiency Diseases have been asked. Benefits of Vitamins. The Following table contains the list all the body parts and functions.