File Name: role and scope of urban design .zip
The common characteristic of qualified urban spaces is that they offer an environment enriched with livability criteria, protecting and maintaining the elements of identity and offering flexibility and diversity compatible with the current conditions. This discussion was performed using the urban design criteria determining and assessing the actors, which play an effective and relevant role in urban design and planning processes. The fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making MCDM method was used. By making use of the results of the present study, the conditions influencing the urban design aspect were re-discussed via current state analysis, and the foundation for a general assessment about the urban design quality of Turkish cities was established. Sustainability in Urban Planning and Design.
As important actors in the process of spatial governance, urban movements and other non-governmental organisations have been becoming increasingly active in many Polish cities in recent years. The initiatives taken by these associations to improve the quality of space and sustainable urban development are permanently changing the nature of the process of local urban planning. In view of these changes, there is a need to assess the scope and effects of the actions of urban movements, as well as their chances of becoming a stable partner in the process of urban governance.
However, in this work the focus was placed on spatial aspects and participatory planning. The main purpose of the paper was to present the expertise and experiences — as well as the critical opinions — of members of various urban movements on this process. It also aims to determine and critically evaluate the scope of changes to the local urban planning process caused by the actions of urban movements. This issue is especially important due to the fact that many members of urban movements are currently standing as candidates in the forthcoming municipal elections in many cities in Poland, hoping to permanently transform the way urban policy is developed.
Addressing such issues required community studies, followed by a critical analysis of the obtained results. The research primarily aimed to answer the following questions:. City management is a very pragmatic process aimed at resolving specific problems. As Benjamin Barber points out, at city level many social, environmental and economic issues can be solved much more effectively than at national level, which may lead to a new vision of governance in a globalising world Barber However, the concept of citizenship must be redefined in the face of social, ethnic and economic changes in contemporary cities.
According to Kowalewski , urban movements can be described as a form of organised protest which derives from the sense of citizenship and the right to public activity in which improvement in the quality of life is achieved by activities within the urban space and infrastructure.
He refers to urban movements as an institutionalised and permanent form of grassroots activism, defined as a very diverse network of organisations and social groups involved in the process of spatial planning and urban policy-making, often outside the formal institutional framework. The activity of urban movements should primarily manifest in proposing and implementing alternative solutions based on their understanding of local social, cultural and spatial conditions as well as technical or academic knowledge de Souza Thus, if local authorities fail to effectively manage a city through the active participation of residents, this gap may be filled by the phenomenon of urban activism.
Urban movements should be considered within the broader theoretical framework of urban transformation and activism in recent decades.
The neoliberalisation of the city in the s, and growing urban problems such as poverty, unemployment and housing needs, led to local authorities taking an interest in innovative solutions in local planning and urban governance. This caused a shift from antagonistic relations to a cooperation between the authorities and various urban movements Mayer The economic and political changes which characterise rapid contemporary urbanisation have triggered various forms of collective civic activism aimed at tackling both social and spatial issues, as well as the environmental erosion of the city Monno Moreover, new types of political subjects that had previously been excluded from civil rights and the institutional channels to voice their claims have become included in the phenomenon of urban activism.
However, the main focus of the article is placed on institutionalised urban movements and their role in the process of local urban planning and social participation, and on their cooperation with local authorities. The re-emergence of grassroots activism in Central and Eastern Europe was the results of the transition from a state-controlled reality to a more diverse and liberal civil society.
This phenomenon has taken many different forms over the period of political and economic transformation: reformed organisations from the former system, non-governmental organisations NGOs , local grassroots activism and momentary mobilisations referring to current issues and publicised on social media and the Internet Jacobsson Nowadays, we can observe a growing interest in urban activism among residents in Polish cities Kowalewski The existence of urban activism is also noted outside institutionalised organisations, but this informal civic activism is very difficult for researchers to capture Polanska The urban movements selected for the study represent different profiles, strategies, scales of action and approaches to urban, infrastructural or social issues.
The group included both strictly urban-planning, expert organisations and socio-political organisations, whose common factor was some interest in planning and spatial issues. Their visibility and recognisability among recipients is also varied. Such a study group made it possible to obtain a representative sample and to showcase the great diversity in the community of urban activists and to note many aspects connected with such activities.
However, it is important to note that the qualitative research was preliminary in character. Only a general plan and the scope of issues to be discussed during the interviews were formulated beforehand. This particular method was chosen since its use makes it possible to obtain in-depth information concerning the actions of the interviewed associations as well as the opinions of people involved in the researched phenomenon Lewandowska The researchers were equipped with a standardised list of all the information sought, which was based on an extensive background query and observations, but they adapted the course of the interview according to the individual answers of the interviewed people as described by Konecki The instruction for the free-form interviews is available as an annex to this article Annex 1.
During the interviews, the respondents were asked mainly about the circumstances of the inception, scope, scale, regularity and methods of action of urban movements in a given city, their substantive development, their target groups and the problems addressed, as well as the increase in spatial awareness of the residents and cooperation with the city authorities.
The list of free interviews and their codes, as well as the summary of selected information concerning interviewed members of urban movements, activists and experts, is presented in Tables 1 — 3.
All conversations were audio-recorded, then transcribed. The collected material was then subjected to coding. Due to their complex structure and great diversity, segments of the transcribed statements were divided into thematic categories as decribed by Babbie , taking into account the predefined research questions.
As a result of the analysis of the qualitative material, the most important findings regarding each city were collated and compared. On that basis, the structure of this article was defined and the results and conclusions were formulated. In the conclusions and discussion section, these findings were subjected to critical analysis, and directions for further research were outlined. Source: own elaboration based on free-form interviews.
Compiled selected data on urban movement members, city activists and social experts from Gdynia with whom free-form interviews were conducted. Over remarks were submitted to its project; however, they were mostly ignored by the authorities. Over the years, more associations and neighbourhood councils were created, e. Nowadays, the scale of the action undertaken by urban movements is usually local, and concerns particular projects and initiatives, e.
The aim of this initiative was to calm road traffic and to convert one of the traffic lanes in each direction to pedestrian and cycling use. However, although the issues tackled by the urban movements usually related to the local and neighbourhood scale, they were successfully placed in the context of the entire city PZ They have also undertaken some publicist work and created a manual for urban activists in Polish cities see Mergler et al.
Specific activities connected with spatial planning range from submitting proposals and remarks to local spatial development plans, through raising awareness of spatial and planning issues among residents PZ04 , commenting on transportation plans and urban development strategies and being consulted on environmental decisions regarding new investments, to participating in public consultations and debates PZ01, PZ They have successfully protested against some poorly-devised municipal plans, e.
In the former case, the issue relates to a conflict between the municipal authorities, urban activists and a private developer who intended to build a residential development in the area adjacent to the park. In the case of the stadium, the right of perpetual usufruct for the area was sold to a private investor, but residential development was not allowed in the local land-use plan.
Finally, the area returned to the municipality and, after being revitalised, will serve as a sports and recreation area for the inhabitants GW However, the message of that discourse is usually received by those whose awareness is already well-developed PZ01 , and reaching the group of people who remain uninterested in spatial issues is extremely difficult and requires a lot of work and knowledge PZ It was also stressed in the interviews that co-operation with the municipality in the area of local urban planning has significantly improved over recent years PZ01 and some urban activists have gone on to become a part of the local authorities PZ A view was also expressed that although people seek more participation in the governance of the city, they still have very little impact on this process.
Moreover, resident levels of trust towards city officials is still very low PZ Its members were interviewed during the research. In the case of FRAG, their activity was primarily aimed at supporting certain projects undertaken by the city, and the attitude of this association was initially strictly pro-investment-oriented. However, after some time its members started to be more critical of some investments.
Nowadays, some members deal with issues connected with spatial planning, at the level of both planning and implementation, and some work as city officials GDA PPS was developed by a non-profit organisation and was aimed at helping local communities to create and sustain their public spaces. Place-making has been defined as a philosophy and a practical process for transforming these spaces. It consists of five phases: defining the place and the identity of the stakeholders, evaluating space and identity issues, creating space vision, performing short-term experiments and, finally, re-evaluating and performing long-term improvements PPS In numerous previous cases the ideas and opinions of the residents remained unimplemented in municipal projects and a majority of public initiatives ended without any tangible effect GDA It is in favour of many infrastructural investments undertaken by the city but its members believe that the city authorities should remain more assertive in negotiations with investors and focus should be placed on the local economy, as well as social policy and public utilities GDA The scale of their activity is varied depending on whether the subject being tackled covers either a street or a district.
According to social surveys conducted during the project, the road constitutes a border of the historic city in the minds of residents and tourists. The project was developed using the method of full participation, which involves a discussion between planning group members and their independent work on the best solution. This resulted in a design concept in which it was proposed to change the entire character of the road and to make it more accessible to pedestrians by decreasing the number of traffic lanes, complementing the existing buildings and creating new public and green spaces FRAG Sometimes the actions are not focused on a particular neighbourhood, but involve direct contact with the residents GDA In all cases, different planning initiatives are undertaken.
Such protests are, however, unsuccessful in many cases GDA For example, all remarks regarding the local spatial development plan for the passenger hub area in Wrzeszcz were rejected GDA Moreover, attempts are made to persuade the city authorities to create local development plans based on full cooperation with urban activists and residents GDA On the other hand, full and continuous cooperation with the city authorities is stressed by many members of urban movements, and was reported in many cases and at many levels of governmental structures GDA01, GDA Urban movements try to develop new participatory tools that could involve more residents in the process of urban governance, e.
The project was aimed at creating model solutions for the redevelopment of courtyards in the quarters of the historic district of the city. When two model courtyards were developed, the project gained the interest of the municipal authorities and obtained funding that allowed the redevelopment of several courtyards to be completed GDA The process, however, is not supposed to be linear, and each phase is meant to be iterative and cyclical in order to obtain the best results Gibbons The project was started in with extensive consultations with the residents.
As a result, the public space was redeveloped according to the needs of it users of all ages, and consisted of greenery, new infrastructure, a playground and new pedestrian routes GDA However, it was also noticed that people are interested in certain issues only when they are directly affected GDA01, GDA03 or in case of very controversial issues, such as the decommunisation of street names, which was a widely discussed topic at the time of writing.
This initiative was undertaken by the Polish government and it was aimed at changing the names of streets named after those active in the communist regime. However, it was very strongly opposed by many residents, due to the many inconveniences and official procedures it required. On the other hand, expert or ideological meetings always get a much smaller response GDA During the interviews, the very interesting view was expressed that many urban activists are becoming increasingly interested in sitting on district councils, which have more authority in planning procedures.
This increase in interest is also due to the fact that the threshold of votes required for district council elections was reduced. Moreover, the activity of urban movements is unprofitable. Only some of them, e. FRAG, that are institutionalised and have a permanent work programme are successful in obtaining some funding. In other cases, without proper financial support, they cannot be considered to have developed substantively and become a partner in local urban governance GDA Urban activism began later in Gdynia than in the previously discussed cities and is relatively the least developed.
They also submit comments on local spatial development plans. However, the members of The Common City expressed the view that the city authorities have a very negative attitude towards the changes proposed in these remarks. Some public space projects in Gdynia have already been realised by The Common City association, e.
Editorial: A revised aims and scope for Landscape and Urban Planning: an international journal of landscape and design. Skip to Main Content. Skip to Search Box. Skip to Top Navigation Bar. Skip to Left Navigation Bar.
Urban design is the art of creating and shaping cities and towns. It involves the arrangement and design of buildings, public spaces, transport systems, services, and amenities. It is the process of giving form, shape, and character to groups of buildings, to whole neighbourhoods, and the city.
As important actors in the process of spatial governance, urban movements and other non-governmental organisations have been becoming increasingly active in many Polish cities in recent years. The initiatives taken by these associations to improve the quality of space and sustainable urban development are permanently changing the nature of the process of local urban planning. In view of these changes, there is a need to assess the scope and effects of the actions of urban movements, as well as their chances of becoming a stable partner in the process of urban governance. However, in this work the focus was placed on spatial aspects and participatory planning. The main purpose of the paper was to present the expertise and experiences — as well as the critical opinions — of members of various urban movements on this process.
Проходя вдоль стеклянной стены, она ощутила на себе сверлящий взгляд Хейла. Сьюзан пришлось сделать крюк, притворившись, что она направляется в туалет. Нельзя, чтобы Хейл что-то заподозрил.
Но глаза… твои глаза, - сказал Беккер, чувствуя себя круглым дураком.
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article.Justin C. 06.06.2021 at 01:06
Urban planning is one of the quandaries of modern society.Minnacudi1995 06.06.2021 at 08:37
Urban design is concerned with the arrangement, appearance and function of our suburbs, towns and cities.