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A square TPS coupon experiences trailing edge oscillatory behavior during experimental testing in the 8' High Temperature Tunnel HTT , which may indicate the presence of aeroelastic flutter. Several theoretical aeroelastic models have been developed, each corresponding to a different experimental test configuration. Von Karman large deflection theory is used for the plate-like components of the TPS , along with piston theory for the aerodynamics.
The constraints between the individual TPS layers and the presence of a unidirectional foundation at the back of the coupon are included by developing the necessary energy expressions and using the Rayleigh Ritz method to derive the nonlinear equations of motion. Free vibrations and limit cycle oscillations are computed and the frequencies and amplitudes are compared with accelerometer and photogrammetry data from the experiments.
Thin-plate spline TPS graphical analysis of the mandible on cephalometric radiographs. We describe two cases of Class III malocclusion with and without orthodontic treatment. A thin-plate spline TPS analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs was used to visualize transformations of the mandible.
The actual sites of mandibular skeletal change are not detectable with conventional cephalometric analysis. These case analyses indicate that specific patterns of mandibular transformation are associated with Class III malocclusion with or without orthopaedic therapy, and visualization of these deformations is feasible using TPS graphical analysis. This developed process will Accurate characterization of entry capsule heat shield material properties is a critical component in modeling and simulating Thermal Protection System TPS response in a prescribed aerothermal environment.
The thermal decomposition of the TPS material during the pyrolysis and charring processes is poorly characterized and typically results in large uncertainties in material properties as inputs for ablation models. These material property uncertainties contribute to large design margins on flight systems and cloud re- construction efforts for data collected during flight and ground testing, making revision to existing models for entry systems more challenging. The analysis presented in this work quantifies how material property uncertainties propagate through an ablation model and guides an experimental test regimen aimed at reducing these uncertainties and characterizing the dependencies between properties in the virgin and charred states for a Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator PICA based TPS.
A sensitivity analysis identifies how the high-fidelity model behaves in the expected flight environment, while a Monte Carlo based uncertainty propagation strategy is used to quantify the expected spread in the in-depth temperature response of the TPS. An examination of how perturbations to the input probability density functions affect output temperature statistics is accomplished using a Kriging response surface of the high-fidelity model. Simulations are based on capsule configuration and aerothermal environments expected during the Mars Science Laboratory MSL entry sequence.
We identify and rank primary sources of uncertainty from material properties in a flight-relevant environment, show the dependence on spatial orientation and in-depth location on those uncertainty contributors, and quantify how sensitive the expected results are.
Modeling of the high altitude portion of reentry vehicle trajectories with DSMC or statistical BGK solvers requires accurate evaluation of the boundary conditions at the ablating TPS surface. Presented in this article is a model which takes into account the complex ablation physics including the production of pyrolysis gases, and chemistry at the TPS surface.
Since the ablation process is time dependent the modeling of the material response to the high energy reentry flow starts with the solution of the rarefied flow over the vehicle and then loosely couples with the material response. The objective of the present work is to carry out conjugate thermal analysis by weakly coupling a flow solver to a material thermal response model. The latter model solves the one dimensional heat conduction equation accounting for the pyrolysis process that takes place in the reaction zone of an ablative thermal protection system TPS material.
An estimate of the temperature range within which the pyrolysis reaction decomposition and volatilization takes place is obtained from Ref. The pyrolysis reaction results in the formation of char and the release of gases through the porous charred material. These gases remove additional amount of heat as they pass through the material, thus cooling the material the process known as transpiration cooling.
In the present work, we incorporate the transpiration cooling model in the material thermal response code in addition to the pyrolysis model. The flow in the boundary layer and in the vicinity of the TPS material is in the transitional flow regime. Therefore, we use a previously validated statistical BGK method to model the flow physics in the vicinity of the micro-cracks, since the BGK method allows simulations of flow at pressures higher than can be computed using DSMC.
Pragmatic evaluation of the Toyota Production System TPS analysis procedure for problem solving with entry-level nurses. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Medication errors occurring in hospitals are a growing national concern.
These medication errors and their related costs or wastes are seen as major factors leading to increased patient safety risks and increased waste in the hospital setting. This article presents a study in which sixteen entry-level nurses utilized a Toyota Production System TPS analysis procedure to solve medication delivery problems at one community hospital.
The objective of this research was to study and evaluate the TPS analysis procedure for problem solving with entry-level nurses. A regression analysis was used to identify characteristics that enhance problem solving efforts. In addition, propositions for effective problem solving by entry-level nurses to aid in the reduction of medication errors in healthcare delivery settings are offered.
Genome-wide analysis of the Solanum tuberosum potato trehalosephosphate synthase TPS gene family: evolution and differential expression during development and stress. Trehalosephosphate synthase TPS serves important functions in plant desiccation tolerance and response to environmental stimuli.
At present, a comprehensive analysis , i. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the TPS gene family was conducted in potato. The amino acid identity among eight StTPSs varied from Although the sequence of the eight StTPSs showed high similarity bp , their gene length is highly differentiated bp. Many of the regulatory elements possibly related to phytohormones, abiotic stress and development were identified in different TPS genes.
Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed using TPS genes of potato, and four other Solanaceae plants, TPS genes could be categorized into 6 distinct groups.
Analysis revealed that purifying selection most likely played a major role during the evolution of this family. Amino acid changes detected in specific branches of the phylogenetic tree suggests relaxed constraints might have contributed to functional divergence among groups.
This study provides a reference for genome-wide identification of the potato TPS gene family and sets a framework for further functional studies of this important gene family in development and stress response. The analysis pertains to the rectangular configurations currently being tested in a NASA wind-tunnel facility, and may explain why oscillations of the articles could be observed. An analysis using a linear flat plate model indicated that flutter was possible well within the supersonic flow regime of the wind tunnel tests.
A more complex nonlinear analysis of the TPS , taking into account any material curvature present due to the restraint system or substructure, indicated that significantly greater aerodynamic forcing is required for the onset of flutter. When the pressure from the base substructure on the bottom of the TPS is used as the source of curvature, the flutter boundary increases rapidly and chaotic behavior is eliminated. TPS for Outer Planets. Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.
This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS , both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.
Several recent findings are suggestive of a further level of variation in the superfamily, including the identification of the novel membrane protein assembly factor TamA and protein translocase PlpD.
A total of 10 protein subfamilies were apparent, distinguished in their domain structure and sequence signatures. This study brings a classification structure to a dynamic protein superfamily of high interest given its essential function for Gram-negative bacteria as well as its diverse domain architecture, and we discuss several scenarios of putative functions of these so far undescribed proteins.
High-temperature behavior of advanced spacecraft TPS. The objective of this work has been to develop more efficient, lighter weight, and higher temperature thermal protection systems TPS for future reentry space vehicles.
The research carried out during this funding period involved the design, analysis , testing, fabrication, and characterization of thermal protection materials to be used on future hypersonic vehicles. Research has been performed in two main areas including development and testing of thermal protection systems TPS and computational research. A variety of TPS materials and coatings have been developed during this funding period. Ceramic coatings were developed for flexible insulations as well as for low density ceramic insulators.
Chemical vapor deposition processes were established for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. Experimental testing and characterization of these materials has been carried out in the NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities and in the Ames time-of-flight mass spectrometer facility.
By means of computation, we have been better able to understand the flow structure and properties of the TPS components and to estimate the aerothermal heating, stress, ablation rate, thermal response, and shape change on the surfaces of TPS.
In addition, work for the computational surface thermochemistry project has included modification of existing computer codes and creating new codes to model material response and shape change on atmospheric entry vehicles in a variety of environments e. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method.
Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied.
A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis , epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties.
It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.
Abstract The purpose of this paper is the empirical investigation of the Toyota Production System in order to test existing relationships as they are proposed in theory. The underlying model consists of seven factors reflecting the key practices of the Toyota Production System.
Using data from manufacturing plants participating in the High Performance Manufacturing research project, the model? Biopolymers can be used where petrochemical plastics have applications with short life.
The excellent degradation of starch and its low cost make it an alternative for obtaining biodegradable plastics. To obtain thermoplastic starch TPS is necessary mechanical shake, high temperature and plasticizers. In this work, TPS were produced using three different vegetable oils from Brazilian's cerrado as plasticizers: buriti, macauba or pequi.
Materials are also produced with montmorillonite MMT. The starch micrographs revealed irregular delaminate with a predominance of starch and 'holes' for the oils. In nanocomposites the clusters of clay are dispersed without a defined standard. It was understood that the plasticizers and processing completely changed the structure of starch causing a decrease in their crystallinity degree.
Almost all nanocomposites presented exfoliate structure, only one presented intercalated structure. Beck, R. Under this element, NASA is developing improved ablative TPS materials based on flexible felt for reinforcement rather than rigid reinforcements. By replacing the reinforcements with felt, the resulting materials have much higher strain-to-failure and are much lower in thermal conductivity than their rigid counterparts.
These characteristics should allow for larger tile sizes, direct bonding to aeroshells and even lower weight TPS. Presentation will an overview of NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities and how they have been applied recently. Objective of the presentation is to brief Generation Orbit and other potential partners on NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities.
B fr Bomber, aus Abkrzungen zusammengesetzte Abkrzungen, wie z. Krzel sind also Wortschpfungen, welche in der Regel aus Buchstaben von Wrtern bzw. Wortgruppen abgeleitet werden. In ihrer Mehrzahl bestehen sie aus drei bis sechs gut aussprechbaren Buchstaben. International jedoch existieren keine abgestimmten Richtlinien was auch von niemandem ernsthaft verlangt oder erwartet wird. Wegen fehlender Abstimmung im deutschsprachigen Raum, d. Die in den naturwissenschaftlichen Fchern Mathematik, Physik und Chemie verwendeten Symbole, Einheitenzeichen, Formelzeichen, Prfixe und Suffixe sind zum grten Teil international abgestimmt und mit wenigen Ausnahmen anerkannt.
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Full size Euclid grism prototype made by photolithography: first optical performance validation. The ESA Euclid mission is intended to explore the dark side of the Universe, particularly to understand the nature of the dark energy responsible of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. One of the two probes carried by this mission is the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation BAO that requires the redshift measurements of millions of galaxies. In the Euclid design, these massive NIR spectroscopic measurements are based on slitless low resolution grisms. These grisms with low groove density and small blaze angle are difficult to manufacture by conventional replica process.
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A square TPS coupon experiences trailing edge oscillatory behavior during experimental testing in the 8' High Temperature Tunnel HTT , which may indicate the presence of aeroelastic flutter. Several theoretical aeroelastic models have been developed, each corresponding to a different experimental test configuration. Von Karman large deflection theory is used for the plate-like components of the TPS , along with piston theory for the aerodynamics. The constraints between the individual TPS layers and the presence of a unidirectional foundation at the back of the coupon are included by developing the necessary energy expressions and using the Rayleigh Ritz method to derive the nonlinear equations of motion. Free vibrations and limit cycle oscillations are computed and the frequencies and amplitudes are compared with accelerometer and photogrammetry data from the experiments. Thin-plate spline TPS graphical analysis of the mandible on cephalometric radiographs. We describe two cases of Class III malocclusion with and without orthodontic treatment.
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