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A person's livelihood derived from life-lode , "way of life"; cf. OG lib-leit  refers to their "means of securing the basic necessities food, water, shelter and clothing of life ". Livelihood is defined as a set of activities essential to everyday life that are conducted over one's life span. Such activities could include securing water, food , fodder , medicine , shelter , clothing.
An individual's livelihood involves the capacity to acquire aforementioned necessities in order to satisfy the basic needs of themselves and their household. The activities are usually carried out repeatedly and in a manner that is sustainable and providing of dignity. The concept of Sustainable Livelihood SL     is an attempt to go beyond the conventional definitions and approaches to poverty eradication.
These had been found to be too narrow because they focused only on certain aspects or manifestations of poverty, such as low income, or did not consider other vital aspects of poverty such as vulnerability and social exclusion. The SL concept offers a more coherent and integrated approach to poverty. The sustainable livelihoods idea was first introduced by the Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development, and the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development expanded the concept, advocating for the achievement of sustainable livelihoods as a broad goal for poverty eradication.
In Robert Chambers and Gordon Conway  proposed the following composite definition of a sustainable rural livelihood, which is applied most commonly at the household level: " A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets stores, resources, claims and access and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and which contributes net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global levels and in the short and long term.
In social sciences , the concept of livelihood extends to include social and cultural means, i. This may involve information, cultural knowledge, social networks and legal rights as well as tools, land and other physical resources.
The concept of livelihood is used in the fields such as political ecology in research that focuses on sustainability and human rights. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Transactions of the Philological Society 6 : Oxford University Press. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Archived from the original on SIDA : 1.
Institute for Social and Economic Change. Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. OUP Oxford. Journal of Agricultural Economics. Grassroots entrepreneurship: entrepreneurs and microenterprises in rural India.
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The starting point is a definition of sustainable livelihoods following from Robert Chambers and Gordon Conway :. The general argument and logic is identical to that suggested by Ellis, but the feedback linkages and inter-relationships are made more explicit in this representation. It is suggested that Spatial Capital is missing from the conventional representation. Where a household or community is in relation to its neighbours, potential trading partners, governors etc. Nearly all of the 31 landlocked developing countries LLDCs have a low per capita GDP, reflecting a wide range of development constraints, including small domestic markets, high vulnerability to economic shocks and natural disasters, low levels of human resources development, and limited domestic savings capacity. The economic development of most LLDCs is adversely affected by remoteness from world markets.
Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries [Ellis, Frank] on Amazon.com. Publisher: Oxford University Press; 1st edition (September 7, ).
Steve Wiggins, Journal of Development Studies this book Not for the first time, he has produced a book whose chapters can readily be added to student reading lists Steve Wiggins, Journal of Development Studies In a field where there has been much excitement and debate over the last two years, little of this has been overtaken by events: a tribute oto the author's ability to present lucidly mainstream positions and yet still incorporate insights from some interesting but less well known work Mary Tiffen, Development Policy Review The great virtue of Ellis's book is that it summarises the literature, and seeks to define the terms in a way that will enable future discussion to proceed from a common base Mary Tiffen, Development Policy Review strongly recommended. If you only have time to read one book on livelihoods, this is it.
What are the determinants of poverty and household welfare? Norwich and Beyond. Thus, households have to fall back on informal measures to smooth their income or consumption Murdoch, Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Campus Life.
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Embed Size px x x x x The distinction is made between diversif cation of necessity and diversification 4 choice. Six determinants of diuersijcation are considered in the light of that distinction, and these are seasonality, risk, labour markets, credit markets, asset strategaes, and coping strategzes.
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As a global organisation, we, like many others, recognize the significant threat posed by the coronavirus. During this time, we have made some of our learning resources freely accessible. Our distribution centres are open and orders can be placed online.
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RURAL LIVELIHOOD DIVERSITY IN DEVELOPING. COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS. Frank Ellis. This paper examines livelihood.Marcello B. 10.06.2021 at 04:05
While Frank Ellis () provided a good working definition as "the assets (natural, physical, human, financial, and social capitals), the activities, and the access to.Georgina O. 10.06.2021 at 17:53
By Frank Ellis; Abstract: Both livelihoods and diversity have become popular topics in development studies. The livelihood concept offers a more.Silverio R. 11.06.2021 at 09:28
Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries Ellis, Frank in rural areas of low income countries than terms formerly considered adequate, such as subsistence, incomes, Oxford: Oxford University Press,