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This is a great read for anyone who is interested in psychology and processes of thought. After studying psychology and receiving his bachelors, Kahneman was enlisted in the Israeli defence force, working primarily in the psychology department. Kahneman later moved to America to complete his Ph. Part one will examine the two different systems of thought.
In reality, our minds are riddled with biases leading to poor decision making. We ignore data that we don't see, and we weigh evidence inappropriately. Thinking, Fast and Slow is a masterful book on psychology and behavioral economics by Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman. Learn your two systems of thinking, how you make decisions, and your greatest vulnerabilities to bad decisions. Thinking, Fast and Slow concerns a few major questions: how do we make decisions?
And in what ways do we make decisions poorly? System 1 : operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort, and no sense of voluntary control. System 2 : allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. Often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice and concentration. System 1 automatically generates suggestions, feelings, and intuitions for System 2. If endorsed by System 2, intuitions turn into beliefs, and impulses turn into voluntary actions.
System 1 can be completely involuntary. A lazy System 2 accepts what the faulty System 1 gives it, without questioning. This leads to cognitive biases. Even worse, cognitive strain taxes System 2, making it more willing to accept System 1.
You rarely face situations as mentally taxing as having to solve x in your head. You like or dislike people before you know much about them; you feel a company will succeed or fail without really analyzing it.
When faced with a difficult question, System 1 substitutes an easier question , or the heuristic question. The answer is often adequate, though imperfect. These are related, but imperfect questions. When System 1 produces an imperfect answer, System 2 has the opportunity to reject this answer, but a lazy System 2 often endorses the heuristic without much scrutiny.
Confirmation bias: We tend to find and interpret information in a way that confirms our prior beliefs. Ignoring reversion to the mean: If randomness is a major factor in outcomes, high performers today will suffer and low performers will improve, for no meaningful reason. Yet pundits will create superficial causal relationships to explain these random fluctuations in success and failure, observing that high performers buckled under the spotlight, or that low performers lit a fire of motivation.
Representativeness: You tend to use your stereotypes to make decisions, even when they contradict common sense statistics. Availability bias: Vivid images and stronger emotions make items easier to recall and are overweighted. Meanwhile, important issues that do not evoke strong emotions and are not easily recalled are diminished in importance. Narrative fallacy: We seek to explain events with coherent stories, even though the event may have occurred due to randomness.
Because the stories sound plausible to us, it gives us unjustified confidence about predicting the future. The expected utility theory explained cases like these, but failed to explain the phenomenon of risk aversion , where in some situations a lower-expected-value choice was preferred.
This makes no sense in classic utility theory —you should be willing to take a positive expected value gamble every time. Furthermore, it ignores how differently we feel in the case of gains and losses.
Are Anthony and Beth equally happy? Obviously not - Beth lost, while Anthony gained. Puzzling with this concept led Kahneman to develop prospect theory. The key insight from the above example is that evaluations of utility are not purely dependent on the current state. Utility is attached to changes of wealth, not states of wealth. And losses hurt more than gains. Diminishing marginal utility applies to changes in wealth and to sensory inputs.
Losses of a certain amount trigger stronger emotions than a gain of the same amount. Most likely you felt better about the first than the second.
The mere possibility of winning something that may still be highly unlikely is overweighted in its importance. We fantasize about small chances of big gains. We obsess about tiny chances of very bad outcomes.
Now consider how you feel about these options on the opposite end of probability:. Most likely, you felt better about the second than the first. Outcomes that are almost certain are given less weight than their probability justifies. For example, if your boss announces a raise, then ten minutes later said she made a mistake and takes it back, this is experienced as a dramatic loss.
However, if you heard about this happening to someone else, you likely would see the change as negligible. The context in which a decision is made makes a big difference in the emotions that are invoked and the ultimate decision. Even though a gain can be logically equivalently defined as a loss, because losses are so much more painful, different framings may feel very different. Happiness is a tricky concept. There is in-the-moment happiness, and there is overall well being.
There is happiness we experience, and happiness we remember. Unlock the full book summary of Thinking, Fast and Slow by signing up for Shortform. Most impressions arise without your knowing how they got there. Can you pinpoint exactly how you knew a man was angry from his facial expression, or how you could tell that one object was farther away than another, or why you laughed at a funny joke?
This becomes more practically important for the decisions we make. Only after this subconscious decision does our rational mind try to justify it. The brain does this to save on effort, substituting easier questions for harder questions.
Is it priced correctly? This type of substitution produces systematic errors, also called biases. We are blind to our blindness. System 2 thinking has a limited budget of attention - you can only do so many cognitively difficult things at once. This limitation is also true when one task comes after another - depleting System 2 resources earlier in the day can lower inhibitions later. For example, a hard day at work will make you more susceptible to impulsive buying from late-night infomercials.
All forms of voluntary effort - cognitive, emotional, physical - seem to draw at least partly on a shared pool of mental energy. In the lab, the strain of a cognitive task can be measured by pupil size - the harder the task, the more the pupil dilates, in real time.
Heart rate also increases. Think of your brain as a vast network of ideas connected to each other. These ideas can be concrete or abstract. The ideas can involve memories, emotions, and physical sensations. When one node in the network is activated, say by seeing a word or image, it automatically activates its surrounding nodes , rippling outward like a pebble thrown in water. Suddenly, within a second, reading those two words may have triggered a host of different ideas.
You might have pictured yellow fruits; felt a physiological aversion in the pit of your stomach; remembered the last time you vomited; thought about other diseases - all done automatically without your conscious control. The evocations can be self-reinforcing - a word evokes memories, which evoke emotions, which evoke facial expressions, which evoke other reactions, and which reinforce other ideas. Think of a new word that fits with each of the three words in a phrase.
You might have thought of this quickly, without really needing to engage your brain deeply. The next exercise is a little different. Within seconds, decide which one feels better, without defining the new word:.
You might have found that the second one felt better. There is a very faint signal from the The basic assessments include language, facial recognition, social hierarchy, similarity, causality, associations, and exemplars. However, not every attribute of the situation is measured. System 1 is much better at determining comparisons between things and the average of things, not the sum of things.
Now try to determine the sum of the length of the lines. This is less intuitive and requires System 2. Unlike System 2 thinking, these basic assessments of System 1 are not impaired when the observer is cognitively busy.
Consider a minor league baseball player. Compared to the rest of the population, how athletic is this player? Now compare your judgment to a different scale: If you had to convert how athletic the player is into a year-round weather temperature, what temperature would you choose? Just as a minor league player is above average but not the top tier, the temperature you chose might be something like 80 Fahrenheit.
As another example, consider comparing crimes and punishments, each expressed as musical volume. If a soft-sounding crime is followed by a piercingly loud punishment, then this means a large mismatch that might indicate injustice.
In day-to-day life, this is acceptable if the conclusions are likely to be correct, the costs of a mistake are acceptable, and if the jump saves time and effort. When presented with evidence, especially those that confirm your mental model, you do not question what evidence might be missing.
System 1 seeks to build the most coherent story it can - it does not stop to examine the quality and the quantity of information.
In an experiment, three groups were given background to a legal case. Those given only one side gave a more skewed judgment, and were more confident of their judgments than those given both sides, even though they were fully aware of the setup.
In reality, our minds are riddled with biases leading to poor decision making. We ignore data that we don't see, and we weigh evidence inappropriately. Thinking, Fast and Slow is a masterful book on psychology and behavioral economics by Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman. Learn your two systems of thinking, how you make decisions, and your greatest vulnerabilities to bad decisions. Thinking, Fast and Slow concerns a few major questions: how do we make decisions? And in what ways do we make decisions poorly?
One tiny part of Vaun saw it and recognized it, but that part was disconnected from her now, in abeyance, hiding. Her mind, however, and her spirit-those had been severely wounded. The spark of being that was Vaun Adams, the spark that had flamed into being as Eva Vaughn, lay smothered beneath a burden that had finally proven intolerable. Vaun was covered by a blanket of despair, a thick, gray blanket that was crushing her, stifling her will to move and create and live, a thick gray blanket that said, "Enough. Since I was two years old I have fought for the right to be what I am, and I can fight no longer.
It was the winner of the National Academies Communication Award for best creative work that helps the public understanding of topics in behavioral science , engineering and medicine. The book summarizes research that Kahneman conducted over decades, often in collaboration with Amos Tversky. The integrity of this research has been called into question in the midst of the psychological replication crisis. The main thesis is that of a dichotomy between two modes of thought : "System 1" is fast, instinctive and emotional ; "System 2" is slower, more deliberative , and more logical. From framing choices to people's tendency to replace a difficult question with one which is easy to answer, the book summarizes several decades of research to suggest that people have too much confidence in human judgement.
Thinking, Fast and Slow provides an outline of the two most common approaches our brains utilize. Like a computer, our brain is built of systems. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional. Daniel Kahneman encourages us to move away from our reliance on this system.
Start growing! Boost your life and career with the best book summaries. The author reveals where we should or should not rely on our intuition and how we can benefit from slow or fast thoughts. He shows us how our choices are made and how we can make decisions more consciously. Because you are a psychologist.
Чатрукьян знал: как только Джабба узнает, что Стратмор обошел фильтры, разразится скандал. Какая разница? - подумал. - Я должен выполнять свои обязанности.
Pick up the key ideas in the book with this quick summary.Mantegingli 10.06.2021 at 20:34
Because thinking slow takes work we are prone to think fast, the path of least resistance. “Laziness is built deep into our nature,” (page 35). We think fast to.Mignonette C. 12.06.2021 at 21:20
Views 5 Downloads 1 File size KB.Boleslao G. 15.06.2021 at 05:01
Unlike going by intuition, System 2 needs a lot of effort to conclude things. Book Summary. Thinking, Fast & Slow. Author: Daniel Kahneman.