File Name: subject and power foucault .zip
The epistemological idea of the autonomous subject capable of self-reflection, distinct from the objects of its actions, and striving towards emancipation has been an intrinsic part of modern history and historiography. This article looks instead at the sociological and cultural theories of the subject articulated in the second half of the 20 th century. While different in many respects from the classical philosophy of the subject, these theories arise from a common set of questions: How are subjects made?
Power for Foucault is what makes us what we are, operating on a quite different level from other theories:. And it induces regular effects of power. Foucault is one of the few writers on power who recognise that power is not just a negative, coercive or repressive thing that forces us to do things against our wishes, but can also be a necessary, productive and positive force in society Gaventa 2 :. In fact power produces; it produces reality; it produces domains of objects and rituals of truth.
Notions of subject and power in Foucaultian readings and their influence in organization and people management studies. This article reflects on the notion of subject and power characterized by Foucault, considering the three intellectual phases and possibilities of the subject, as portrayed in studies on organizations and management.
The research assumes that the ways in which Foucault characterized the subject in intellectual phases reflects the ways the organization manages the individual.
In addition, this work highlights the potential of the Foucaultian approach regarding the analysis of subjects and the relations of power in the organizations. In the archaeological phase the proposal is to prioritize the study of organizational discourses. In the genealogy phase, the idea is to advance the analyses of the disciplinary power, relational power, and biopolitics. Finally, in ethics, we suggest the need to analyze the constitution of subjectivities in the work space.
Michel Foucault concepts have stood out as meaningful for studies and problematization development in several field of studies and thematic. Considerations involving the subject and power are the two themes best related to the studies of Foucault about the organization, with significant reflections while analyzing manners to manage the personnel.
It is a feasible perspective to propose a reflection, in this paper, on a way to refine Foucault analyses. Firstly, about the subject and ordering means of the discursive formation in the s. After, having the subject as an effect of domination and regulation techniques in the s, and lastly the subject as political and ethic agent in the s.
From the notions regarding the man and the forms of control and ordering, we can consider the different manners and techniques of personnel-management in the organizational studies, taking into account the three Foucault intellectual periods. This article deems that the practice of personnel-management is not only illustrative procedures of an organization performance, but also the base of an ideological production.
Thus, we cannot distinguish the procedures and the devices, and their discourse about how they work and are lived by the individual. From this, we imply that operational devices and the ideology are permanently connected, having the role to incorporate some behaviors and values that legitimize them.
In support of the concepts of Foucault about the relation between man and his forms of power, we can noticed, in his genealogical period, a drastically change on the focus of a production analysis of the passive subject, typical on the archaeological period, to focus on the manner that individuals establish themselves actively as active subjects. At last, on his ethical period, Foucault focus on the subjects as self-disciplination.
Although, it is in the intersection of the governmentality notion, developed in his genealogical period, and the reflections about his technology, detailed in the ethics period, that Foucault concepts gain an interesting nuance, while considering the auto establishment of the subject who labors as a management technique.
This paper aims to reflect about the notion of subject and power, developed and characterized by Foucault in his three intellectual periods and his reflection on the studies of organizations and personnel management. When we consider that the foucaultian perspective about the subject and power relations remains little explored, mainly related to the archaeological and ethic periods, this proposal gains consistency.
Furthermore, ones argue that the concepts of Foucault, always offer an interesting perspective in the studies related to the organizations and management, considering the social practice an interesting field to be researched. According to Maia , Foucault deeply developed his studies about the relation of power, control over individuals, and the characterization of disciplinary power from to In the late 70s, as said by Villadsen , Foucault turned his attention back to ethics and aesthetics.
During this period, the subject is in the center of his reflections development. Foucault argued the impossibility to study the subjects or the ways human beings are subjects without studying the power relation. Thus, the reason why the power controls, although not exclusively, and why the individual accepts it, is that the power does not burden on the subject as a not forbidding violence.
In this moment, attention is drawn to the dichotomic process in which the subject experiences his own subjectivation stages: the subject is the one subjugated to the way people see him and the way he sees himself; being the first a given, extrinsic and pre-made image and the latter his self-identity and self-concern FONSECA, ; FOUCAULT, a.
Therefore, the individual subjects himself to an image that he did not fully conceived and created. The subject is not a result of a self-constitution, but pushed to become a subject by the standards, established by a regime defined by rules and manner that his society, culture and social group impose FOUCAULT, a , b. Although, we cannot see the power only by its downside, but also by its bright side. The power goes deep into our body and causes pleasure DIXON, , creates knowledge, makes real discourses and makes the emergence and growth of a moral subject possible.
In this context, the foucaultian vision suggesting that the power operates but it cannot be priority has meaningful implications in the studies about power relation in the organizations, and the strategies to manage the individual.
After all, it is important to trace the analytical space from which is possible to argue that the subject arises from actions that are reflexive and moral responsible, through strategies of self-care, while confronted with specific conflicting situations.
These contradictory situations appear when the individual experience a disagreement between the way in which he recognizes himself as subject and the claims imposed in the multiple normative relationship in a space for interaction and social inclusion. Saying that, we must exam through coercitive and self-practice, in an exercise of self-control, the relation between the subject and the games of truth FOUCAULT, a.
A self-control exercise that drives the subject to elaborate, transform, and recognize himself, reaching a certain way of being. Motta and Alcadipani , aiming to standardize the studies that used the concepts of Foucault about the organization theory, analyzed articles published in the most influential international journals in the field from to the first half of The authors pointed out that a major part of the articles analyzed used the concepts of Foucault to discuss themes related to power and the organizations control, prioritizing the notions of disciplinary authority.
Motta and Alcadipani highlight, in addition, that the analyses of the studied articles used the foucaultian perspectives about power in a dissociated way, as if they were instruments that meet the specific argumentation needs, putting aside important contributions given by other foucaultian conceptions of power analytics. They highlighted that most of the articles that analyze organizations and the management process in a foucaultian perspective refer mainly to works from the genealogical period.
From this period the concepts of power, more precisely the discipline and surveillance power originated from the concepts developed by Foucault in his work Discipline and Punishment , are the most cited. Knights , claims that Discipline and Punishment , from Foucault, got the scholars of organizations attention because the themes control and surveillance , interpreted into the concepts of institutional view and monitoring, have similarities in the way how employees are controlled at work in contemporaneity.
The foucaultian contribution for the understanding of subject and power relations are outlined in the following topics, with the aim of reflecting about the possible interpretation of the organization and management analyses, in the three intellectual period of Foucault. In this period, the reflections of Foucault about the notions of subject and power strongly connects to the study of discursive practice, and to the manner how some regimes are truly established, according to the historical period HACK, Seen that, while focusing the archeological period of Foucault, we search for a necessary changes on the way that organizational researches are carried out, under the functionalist perspective, that follows the rules and procedures of the positive knowledge SILVEIRA, , in a structural and qualitative perspective.
This allows the development of analyses to understand how to establish the power relations between the organizations and their employees, prioritizing the studies of organizational discourses.
The authors analyzed through discursive movement, how the candidates speeches begin, support, control, and determine the candidate decision to enter or not in the company as an independent and particular decision.
They suggest, as the subjectivity happens during the hiring process the decision depends on the usage and acceptation of the organizational discourses by the candidate as manifestation of their own reasons to work in the company.
It is all about understanding that the organization defines, through certain discursive practices, the subjectivity processes without denying that subjectivity is an effect of the permanent interaction, between the human agency and the organizational discourses, not a determination from one to another. Phillips and Oswick assert the importance of the organizational discourse analysis as an approach for the studies of organization and administration.
In general, it considers the organizational discourse as an important factor to build up an identity at work. For the authors, the organizational discourse provides tools to explore the management process in different settings, while offering a connection between identities and constructs as a manner of control and confidence.
The organizations put this into practice through the personnel policy, in order to multiply moments, places and ways to transmit the idea that belonging to certain company is essential as a way to win recognition as a particular worker.
This element of ideology begins in the admissions and evaluation interviews, as well as in training periods, company meetings and other ways of internal communications, when the individuals are proud of the company they belong to and appraise its generosity.
The organizational theories, in that perspective, are able to identify how an organization and its own organizational practices are seen as accurate ROSA, , besides the way how workers notice themselves and are described by certain discourses, which still define, the conditions and social practice in the work place. While making progress about the articulation among the constituted knowledge, the second foucaultian intellectual period starts focusing in the relation between the doctrines and discoursing places, showing that, in every society, one can control the speech production.
Thus, while in the archeology we notice the power mainly as repressive power, in the genealogy the emphasis is in the power coming from the speeches. In this regarding, the aim is to redirect the disciplinary process attention to the institutional context in which is the organization.
Lastly, Foucault b engages his reflections regarding the governmentality as a management strategy and tactic to control and lead the behaviors, as a fusion of the domination technics exerted on others and on the self.
In these works, Foucault studied how the discipline, punishment and the sexuality deeply affects the human being. Besides that, he analyzed the way the institutions and authorities use strategies consciously and unconsciously to have power over the subject KNIGHTS, Foucault , in Discipline and Punishment, while observing the daily life and the social practices, suggests a new research method VEIGA-NETO, , considering that those have their own regularity, logic, strategy and reason.
Considering that at schools, at prisons, at churches and at hospitals, people can show some kind of truth about themselves. We may not take this truth only as a passive force, because it also leads the individuals thought and the self-concept in a particular direction FOUCAULT, , a. Inspired by the Discipline and Punishment book FOUCAULT, , studies about the disciplinary process in the organizations, analyzed the ways they use the surveillance mechanism inspired in the panopticon, as pointed by Motta , Motta and Alcadipani and Knights to guarantee an effective self-management by the workers.
From the panopticon view, comes a relation of power that enters in the subjectivity of each individual, incorporating in their conscience, function of control, vigilance, and discipline. The individual becomes, in this relation, only follower of the order, not being responsible for his own formation, only for the obedience of the imposed rules.
The pastoral power bases on a relation of power, in which the pastor seeks to change the spirit and the desire of the person, and to guide, to lead, to control, and to manipulate, starting from the spiritual orientation through confession.
This relation implies that the pastor needs to know more and more about his congregation. In the view of the genealogy of Foucault, the study of the organizations can become analyses about the organizational places. Focusing in the social practices in the relations between managers and subordinates, as well as in the relation between the individual and the work place, as a conceptual space and its geographic dimensions, and about the subject dimension and the working time.
These are areas and fields of practical activities that legitimize the knowledge and the truth, and are qualified by specialists and authorities, according to their preeminent hierarchical position. These ideas, in agreement with the genealogical comprehension by Foucault about the subject, propose that we do not control the subject only by external powers because this power is also often an inner pressure.
Secondly, these ideas suggest that the subjects are not just passive parts in this power relation field, but active ones. He focus his investigation in the analysis of the emergence of the controlled society, in which the power is scattered among many spokespeople and social institutions.
Foucault , in his reflections, considered the uprising of the governmentality and the biopolitics idea. The biopolitics is a process of government and regulation of individuals, not anymore from disciplinary and restrictive strategies that address the physical body, but from the body as political place itself AVELINO, The reflections about the govenmentality enable the analysis of the human interaction process and the conditions of the interaction between the government of the conduct and the way that those allow people to be active, at the same time as exposed to their own exploration.
The govenmentality promotes a better perception about the procedures to manage people FOUCAULT, c , acting and investing increasingly in the instrumentalisation of the individual inclination for self-regulations, aligning those, to socialpolitical purpose SKINNER, The authors imply that the manager uses the ethics operation tactically to shape the company workers behavior, with an important influence in the establishment of the subjectivity.
Therefore, Dixon did not only consider the questions about the domination and the government techniques, but also the techniques of the self. The freedom proposed in the govenmentality allows the subject to perceive himself fully responsible for his career in the organization, as inferred by Cappelle and Melo , in studies about women police officers graduation.
Seeing that, the company cannot keep the dada about the employees private, but gathered and permanently saved to be analyzed if necessary as the time goes by. Those dada can establish a population and the team rules, and be a tool used by the individual to give him the impression that he knows the issues related to him and have the control about his life in the work place. Thus, we consider two different basic dimensions of the power: the knowledge and the subjectivity. The first considered as source of individuality and productivity dada, stemming from the power relation.
The second, provided by the way of freedom arising from the subject awareness about the power mechanism. In the organizations, we can analyze the dimensions related to ethic issues. The concept of technology of the self, shows that the individuals are able to transform themselves in terms of power relation Foucault, b. This perspective, from the standpoint of Foucault a , c , consists in taking into account that the power relations are only possible inasmuch as the subjects are free.
Connected to this idea is the emphasis of Foucault about the power as a primarily from a relational nature. The Technologies of self are possible manners to transform the human beings into subjects.
This is a form of power that applies to the individual daily life, while highlighting their own individuality bequeathing their own identity. From the establishment of a truth that the individual has to auto recognize and take others to recognize themselves. It points out the double meaning for the term subject: subject submitted to another subject, by forms of control and dependence; and the subject submitted to its self-identity, by the conscience of self.
In both meanings, the subject reflects a form of power that subjugates and subordinates, as mentioned by Dreyfus and Rabinow While the technology of power determines the way to lead the individual and how to guide them to certain purpose and forms of objectification FOUCAULT, c , as technology of self.
The technologies of the self, are directly involved to the capacity of the individuals to shape themselves, assisted by practice of the self-government.
At the core of this book lies the relation between Power as socio-political phenomenon and the novel as literary discourse. It shows that, in a society facing the excess of power in its various forms, novelistic fiction mediates knowledge about societal Power structures and uses specific strategies to subvert and denounce them. The first part of the study is theoretical: it presents some of the most prominent theories of Power, from Plato, Machiavelli, Nietzsche to Weber, Dahl, Lukes, Parsons, Bourdieu or Foucault. After offering a critical approach to the concepts of Power defined in the social, political and philosophical fields, it articulates the relations of Power imprinted in literary discourse within a typology of four categories. In the second part of the book, this taxonomy of Power is applied to four key novels in the context of Romanian "literary crossroads", showing how novelistic fiction not only assume a critical and subversive position against the excess of Power, but also unveils our fragility when experiencing History. EN English Deutsch. Your documents are now available to view.
PDF | On Jan 1, , P. Patton published Foucault's subject of power | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate.
In sociology , power-knowledge is a term introduced by the French philosopher Michel Foucault French : le savoir-pouvoir. According to Foucault's understanding, power is based on knowledge and makes use of knowledge; on the other hand, power reproduces knowledge by shaping it in accordance with its anonymous intentions. The relationship between power and knowledge has been always a central theme in the social sciences. Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? In the field of political economy , Harold Innis wrote extensively on the " monopoly of knowledge ",  in which empires over the history exploited information and communication resources to produce exclusive knowledge and power.
Notions of subject and power in Foucaultian readings and their influence in organization and people management studies. This article reflects on the notion of subject and power characterized by Foucault, considering the three intellectual phases and possibilities of the subject, as portrayed in studies on organizations and management. The research assumes that the ways in which Foucault characterized the subject in intellectual phases reflects the ways the organization manages the individual. In addition, this work highlights the potential of the Foucaultian approach regarding the analysis of subjects and the relations of power in the organizations. In the archaeological phase the proposal is to prioritize the study of organizational discourses. In the genealogy phase, the idea is to advance the analyses of the disciplinary power, relational power, and biopolitics. Finally, in ethics, we suggest the need to analyze the constitution of subjectivities in the work space.
The Ethics of Subjectivity pp Cite as. Towards the end of his life, Foucault made a decisive ethical turn — a turn towards the self and seemingly away from his previous preoccupations which were considered more politically engaged. It appeared as if Foucault had trapped himself in power 1 and now chose to withdraw into the self. A reconceptualized self appeared on the scene: exit self, the product; enter self, the creator. The self is now no longer considered as the passive product of an external system of constraint and prescriptions, but as the active agent of its own formation. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The Subject and Power. Michel Foucault. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 4. (Summer, ), pp. Stable URL.
This article examines how Foucault analyzes subjectivity within the frame of his approach concerning power and discourse, and the concepts of archaeology and problematization as all discursive and non-discursive practices that constitute the subject and subjective experience. Pursuing an answer to the question whether Foucault philosophizes with words or things, the present study claims that Foucault does not philosophize either by words or things in Durkheimian sense but does so by analyzing discourse as practices forming the object of which they speak systematically. Florence, M. Foucault, Michel, The Cambridge Companion to Foucault, ed. Gutting, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Business ethics ethical decision making and cases 11th edition pdf free 2001 vw beetle repair manual pdfEustache P. 13.05.2021 at 05:12
The Subject and Power. Author(s): Michel Foucault. Source: Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Summer, ), pp. Published by: The.GeneviГЁve S. 20.05.2021 at 19:44
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline.