File Name: applied crisis communication and crisis management .zip
Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a disruptive and unexpected event that threatens to harm the organization or its stakeholders. Three elements are common to a crisis: a a threat to the organization, b the element of surprise, and c a short decision time. Therefore, the fourth defining quality is the need for change. If change is not needed, the event could more accurately be described as a failure or incident.
No matter how careful and safety-conscious an organization is, if it's long-lived enough, some crisis or another will occur sometime in the life of the organization.
When an agricultural organization fails to plan for potential disaster, the outcome can be severe—even tragic. Think about some crisis situations that could happen in an agricultural setting. Did these come to mind? You name the bad luck scenario, and it could happen.
And yet many agricultural organizations operate without a plan for what they will do when things go wrong. Still more organizations have no plan for communication during a crisis. Why are organizations not prepared for things to go wrong? Being prepared for a crisis ahead of time will help your organization get through the rough times when things go wrong.
And part of that overall crisis plan should be the integration of crisis communication. In this publication, we will examine an extremely important aspect of communication practice: crisis and risk communication. Risk communication done effectively informs people about hazards to their environment or their health, manages potential problems in a manner that promotes goodwill, disseminates information, and communicates potential crisis and emergency situations well, encouraging prudent action and reducing panic.
Here are some examples of health and safety issues that qualify as risk communication topics:. Risk communication skills and techniques are used to handle both risk and crisis situations. With risk communication, communicators lay the groundwork for trust between the community and the organization dealing with the risks involved.
However, bad risk communication could cause a crisis communication episode to develop. Communication experts generally agree that three elements exist when communicating a risk:.
Message: Messages are the overall information an organization wants its audience to comprehend, even if the audience forgets the details. The message should inform and persuade.
The goal is for the audience to understand the message and take certain action. Medium: The medium for the message depends on the specifics of the situation. It could be a brochure, a billboard, or a television commercial.
Audience: Risk may vary dramatically in different populations. Targeting a specific audience is extremely important. Successful risk communicators must know how the public perceives risk and how to distinguish between objective risk and subjective risk. Objective risk is calculated by scientists based on research. Subjective risk is the risk that the public perceives. Subjective risk is lessened or increased by familiarity "I knew someone who this happened to" , dread, and personal control US EPA, p.
For example, it is much safer statistically to fly than to drive, and the chances of getting bitten by a shark are small compared to the chances of being attacked by dogs. These statistics are objective risks. However, people fear flying and shark attacks much more than they fear driving or dog attacks. It is the subjective risk that plays into people's fears. Vincent T. Any organization communicating risk issues should follow these rules, summarized here:.
Accept and involve the public as a partner. Involving the public early, preferably before any decisions are made, helps establish an atmosphere of trust and sincerity.
The release of information from your organization to the public goes more smoothly if you are seen as trustworthy with nothing to hide. If you fail to involve the public at an early stage, the community may become angry and overestimate risks. Plan carefully and evaluate your efforts. Develop communication strategies and plans as early as possible. Begin with specific objectives, such as providing information to the public, motivating individuals to act, or contributing to the response to a conflict.
Recruit spokespersons who are good at presentations and interactions. Listen to the specific concerns of community members. Risk communication is a two-way exchange. You must listen; do not make assumptions.
Recognize people's emotions. Be honest, frank, and open. Trust and credibility are your most important assets when communicating risk information. If you lose trust and credibility, you will find them almost impossible to regain. To maintain trust and credibility state your credentials, admit mistakes, and disclose risk information quickly.
Work with other credible sources. Develop partnerships, when applicable, with other organizations or governmental agencies. Try to partner with other trustworthy experts, such as university scientists, trusted local officials, or doctors. Meet the needs of the media.
The news media transfer risk communication to the public, so you must meet reporters' needs. Be open and accessible to reporters.
Before a risk situation occurs, build a relationship with reporters. Do not use technical language. Be simple. Be sensitive to people's emotions. Promise only what you can do, and do what you promise. Risk communication differs from crisis communication. Crisis communication deals with things that do go wrong. Risk communication deals with things that might go wrong. Risk communication responds to any event that could cause public concern and could focus media attention on an organization.
Here is an example of how the distinction between risk communication and crisis communication could play out:. Risk communication: You own a food processing facility. A food product a competitor sells has been found to have salmonella. The competing company issues a food recall. Your product is free of salmonella; nevertheless, you realize that the concern about salmonella connected to this product generally will inevitably affect your company, so you go into "risk communication" mode.
You initiate a toll-free telephone hotline, informational websites, and distribution of information through various media to inform consumers that your product is safe. You are being proactive and are listening to and responding to the public.
Because you act quickly to bring the public in as a partner, concern about your product is alleviated. Sales decrease in the immediate aftermath and you suffer some economic loss, but because you have responded in a way that enhances the public's trust, you are seen as a responsible company and recover quickly.
Crisis communication: Your food processing company unknowingly shipped out salmonella-tainted food. Within a short time, people around the country are getting sick, and the cause has been traced to your company.
You are in "crisis communication" mode. In this scenario, you must respond quickly to the media and the public's food safety concerns. If you respond in a way that addresses their concerns, you can maintain credibility and trust. An organization in crisis will be best served if it has developed a crisis communication strategy to communicate to decision makers and the public.
First, it's important to understand the nature of crisis. All crises have some common characteristics:. They are potentially damaging. They cast shadows of doubt about the credibility of an organization in the eyes of the public.
A crisis can create improper or distorted perceptions. A crisis may involve allegations that tell only part of the story and stimulate negative impressions by the public about the organization.
An organization, therefore, must be prepared to respond to incorrect perceptions. Crisis situations are almost always disruptive to the organization. Work is placed on hold until the crisis is resolved. A crisis generally takes the organization by surprise. The organization is placed in a "reaction" mode, where it responds to the situation, rumors, comments, and potentially hostile interviews. Crisis also implies lack of control.
To counteract that impression, an organization's response to crisis must be swift and competent. Speedy and effective action in the immediate aftermath of a crisis will show the public that the organization has prepared for the crisis. The best way to handle a crisis communication situation is to have a plan in place for managing a crisis situation.
Of course, you will not know what specific crisis might occur, but having a contingency plan in place—so that your organization knows who will talk with the media, the "chain of command" for decision-making, and how communication will be handled overall—is extremely important.
Your organization's overall crisis plan should devote significant time and effort to the crisis communication plan , especially if the crisis affects a large sector of the public.
The more people a crisis impacts, the more important it is to communicate to the public. The plan should address these key issues:.
This is an updated version of Crisis Management and Communications by Dr. Timothy Coombs. The original version can be found here. Introduction It was important to update the crisis communication entry for two reasons. One, there has been a significant amount of new research since the original entry was created. This new research provides support for some existing crisis communication knowledge as well as generating some novel insights.
This book guides students through cases and exercises that explore crisis communication and management in action and build the necessary skills for effective crisis management. In the first two chapters, the author W. Timothy Coombs introduces key theories and principles in crisis communication, which the students apply through analysis of 17 cases drawn from recent headlines. The cases are explored from pre-crisis, mid-crisis, and post-crisis perspectives, and include a range of predominant crisis scenarios from product recalls to lawsuits to environmental disasters. Exercises are included to help students apply concepts from crisis communication and management such as crisis threat assessment and the utility of social media in scanning for crisis warning signs.
No matter how careful and safety-conscious an organization is, if it's long-lived enough, some crisis or another will occur sometime in the life of the organization. When an agricultural organization fails to plan for potential disaster, the outcome can be severe—even tragic. Think about some crisis situations that could happen in an agricultural setting. Did these come to mind? You name the bad luck scenario, and it could happen.
Crisis communication is a sub-specialty of the public relations profession that is designed to protect and defend an individual, company, or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. Meaning can be socially constructed ;  because of this, the way that the stakeholders of an organization perceive an event positively, neutrally, or negatively is a major contributing factor to whether the event will become a crisis. Crisis management has been defined as "a set of factors designed to combat crises and to lessen the actual damages inflicted. Effective crisis management has the potential to greatly reduce the amount of damage the organization receives as a result of the crisis, and may even prevent an incident from ever developing into a crisis. In crisis communication literature, several streams of research exist at the same time.
The CERC manual is intended for public health response officials and communicators who have a basic knowledge of public health communication, working with the media and social media, and local and national response structures. Last updated — Types of emergencies and factors that increase the risk of crisis — Definitions of crisis and emergency risk communication CERC concepts — Lifecycle of CERC and how communication works at each phase of a crisis. Last updated — The four ways people process information during a crisis — Mental states during a disaster, such as uncertainty, helplessness, and hopelessness — Risk perception and behaviors. Last updated — Understanding your audiences — Making facts work in your message — Building credibility and trust — Gathering audience feedback.
This is an updated version of Crisis Management and Communications by Dr. Timothy Coombs.
Наконец Стратмор заговорил. В его голосе слышалось скорее недоумение, чем шок: - Что ты имеешь в виду. - Хейл… - прошептала Сьюзан. - Он и есть Северная Дакота.
Плевал я на Стратмора! - закричал Чатрукьян, и его слова громким эхом разнеслись по шифровалке. - Мистер Чатрукьян? - послышался сверху звучный возглас. Все трое замерли.
И в результате одолел Хейла, освободил Сьюзан и выиграл время для переделки Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан с опаской посмотрела на связанного шифровальщика. Стратмор сидел на диване, небрежно положив берет-ту на колени.
Every organization is vulnerable to crises.