File Name: school and classroom management .zip
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The demands placed on teachers and the push for rapid decisions often leave little time to think before having to act. For the most part, teachers have been left on their own to solve the problems related to creating wellmanaged learning environments that will facilitate, not interfere, with learning.
There are countless materials and "How to" books lining the shelves of educational bookstores. New teachers can become frustrated in trying to decide upon "the best" management approach for their classrooms. The purpose of this section is to provide an overview and framework for mentors so that they will be able to support new teachers in making sound classroom management decisions.
Defining Classroom Managementlassroom management refers to all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time, and materials so that instruction in content and student learning can take place. It includes all of the things that a teacher must do toward fostering student involvement, cooperation, and a productive working environment. The Louisiana Components of Effective Teaching delineate the behaviors considered by Louisiana teachers, administrators, and the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education to be effective teaching practices.
Before helping the new teacher, the mentor or mentor support team member must have a thorough understanding of the Attributes that comprise the Management Domain. Reviewing some of the important research about classroom management will deepen one's perspective and understanding of the related Attributes. The mentor must support the new teacher in understanding the components and attributes that comprise the Research on Classroom ManagementSome of the first and most important research on the management of classroom groups was conducted by Jacob Kounin In a study, Kounin concluded that effective teachers were no different from ineffective teachers in responding to or dealing with student's misbehavior after the misbehavior had occurred.
However, there was a major difference in the behavior of effective and ineffective teachers PRIOR to the student's misbehavior.
This prior behavior determines whether teachers are effective or ineffective. The reason effective teachers are effective is that they have far fewer student problems and are able to get their students to work and to achieve. Kounin's work was validated by further studies in and by Brophy and Evertson in Effective Classroom Management at the Beginning of the School Year.
Kounin's study showed that ineffective teachers were not ready. Confusion led to problems; problems led to misbehavior; misbehavior led to constant tangling between teacher and students. Kounin's study showed that effective teachers were ready. Because they had the classroom ready, they were able to prevent many misbehaviors from occurring. A review of the teacher behavior patterns, as described by Kounin, of effective classroom managers will give the mentor or mentor support team member insight into coaching the new teacher.
In haste, a teacher whipped out her film library catalog and ordered the perfect film for her U. History class lesson on the Civil War. She told the clerk the name of the film and the catalog number, inadvertently giving the clerk the catalog number of the next film, also called The Perfect Tribute. Without previewing the film, she showed it to the class. It was a film made for morticians on how to sell caskets-The Perfect Tribute.
Harry K. The concepts that emerged from this research provide a rich source of ideas about classroom management and providing instruction. Effective teacher behavior patterns identified in Kounin's research are described below.
In effect, it's what teachers do to give their students the impression that they have eyes in the backs of their heads. The easiest and most visible way for teachers to let their students know they are "with-it" is by nipping behavior problems in the bud before they escalate, identifying the culprit, and stopping the more serious of two simultaneous misbehaviors first. Supporting new teachers in developing "with-it-ness" will contribute to the understanding of Management Component C: The teacher manages learner behavior to provide productive learning opportunities; Attribute IIC1: Establishes expectations for learner behavior and Attribute IIC2: Uses monitoring techniques to facilitate learning.
Teachers frequently encounter such problems as having to deal with a student who needs assistance completing an assignment or who has just returned from a pull-out program, while trying to work with a small group of students. Teachers skilled in overlapping are able to maintain the flow of their instruction, holding students accountable for their work, while at the same time effectively dealing with interruptions. It involves having good transition routines, using signals as cues to prepare students for transitions, and clearly ending one activity before moving on to another.
Smoothness also involves selectively ignoring certain minor misbehaviors, which can be handled just as effectively after a learning activity, in order to avoid interruption of the instruction. An understanding of "smoothness" will help new teachers develop competence in Component IIB: The teacher maximizes the amount of time available for instruction. Developing smoothness in transitions between learning activities will strengthen the new teacher's ability with respect to Attribute IIB1: Manages routines and transitions in a timely manner.
Teachers skilled in momentum conduct their lessons at a brisk Classroom Management 4 pace, providing continuous academic signals or tasks for students to focus upon. They avoid any behavior which may slow down a lesson or lose students' interest such as giving long, drawn out directions or explanations, lecturing on student behavior, breaking activities into steps which are too small, or having time left over with nothing for students to do.
Mentors need to be aware of strategies to help new teachers keep lessons moving briskly. Communicating to the students that their participation will be observed and evaluated will encourage accountability. Mentors or mentor support team members will be able to provide support to new teachers in developing group focus.
Establishing rules and procedures teaching and reinforcing 3. Reducing transition time between activities 4. Having with-it-ness, overlapping, smoothness, and momentum 5.
Building a strong group focus and holding students accountable 6. Effective group management practice maintains high-levels of student work involvement and minimizes student misbehavior. Through self-reflection, the new teacher will be able to determine specific behaviors that need reinforcement.
Through debriefing, specific strategies to improve management skills can then be identified. Directions: Place yourself on a continuum from 1 to 10 10 being the highest for each of the group management skills listed below.
Group Format: I organize lessons to involve all students actively. In The First Days of School, by Harry and Rosemary Tripi Wong, the following truisms are presented for teachers to read before beginning to set up their classrooms. In sharing these with the new teacher, the mentor may refocus efforts on developing a climate to promote learning. A climate of work is what you want to establish during the first week of school. The first week of school should stress large group organization and procedures.
Spend your time on classroom management of student behavior, rather than on making your classroom look like a showcase. Do not over arrange or over decorate your room for the opening of school.
Your room should be neat and pleasant, but don't spend time making it the ultimate room you want by Back-to-School Night. A few bare bulletin boards, shelves, and flowerpots won't bother anyone. And don't bother having the learning center, library, or resource center complete.
Room Arrangement"Readiness is the primary determinant of teacher effectiveness. IThe following examples are general, and the mentor or mentor support team member should adapt them as needed to the teaching context of the new teacher. Try to ask for furniture or needed items well ahead of time. Be flexible. Preparing Procedures for the First DayEfficiency in the classroom is the hallmark of the effective learning environment.
Established procedures, consistently applied and taught to students at the onset of the school year, will significantly improve classroom management. Students Correcting Errors Effective classroom managers both in elementary and secondary schools have well-developed classroom rules and procedures and spend much of the time at the beginning of the school year teaching them.
Rules should be reviewed throughout the year. Students may need reminders; rules that cease to modify behavior need to be eliminated. The new teacher may need support to understand that the behavior of the student may be the result of an ineffective rule.
A Continuum of Discipline PlansOne should remember that the function of a rule is to modify behavior. New teachers need to be encouraged to develop a discipline plan that is based upon what they are trying to accomplish. Teacher tells. Teacher behaviors: Teacher behaviors: Teacher behaviors:Silently looks on Non Directive statements Questions Directive statements Modeling Reinforcement Physical intervention and isolation Points to Consider in Developing Effective Procedures and Routines"The number one problem in the classroom is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines.
A procedure may be defined as an approved way of achieving a specific task, while routines serve as a means to establish and regulate activities. New teachers may adapt the following steps in establishing classroom procedures.
Guidelines for Effective TransitionsBegin the day with independent activities followed by whole group morning activities. Begin language arts with a warm-up activity to stimulate student interest and enthusiasm. Use timers to keep class on schedule. Keep a posted list of "free time" activities. Model and practice routines until students become familiar and secure with transition procedures.
Classroom Management 19Maintaining the System by Monitoring Student Work ew teachers often need assistance in maintaining a systematic classroom management plan. Learning new strategies to monitor student work will deepen the new teachers' understanding of The Louisiana Components of Effective Teaching, Component II C: The teacher manages learning behavior to provide productive learning opportunities.
NThe mentor may want to share the techniques for monitoring found in Strategies for Effective Teaching in the 21 st Century. Observing the new teacher instructing students will allow the mentor opportunities to watch the new teacher's monitoring techniques. Scheduling opportunities for the new teacher to observe an effective experienced teacher will also be beneficial.
My Spring Sabbatical Project was to study techniques and ideas of classroom management. The result was a set of documents and resources that I am placing here in blog format to easily share with my colleagues and any other interested party. Comments and questions are welcome, and I will respond as time allows. Feel free to share these posts. List of the individual topics covered — Click on active links to go to that section. I wanted to deeply understand the idea of classroom management. It helped to start with the basic idea of a classroom as a place where teachers and students gather for the purpose of learning.
Classroom Management is a term teachers use to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly without disruptive behavior from students compromising the delivery of instruction. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior preemptively, as well as effectively responding to it after it happens. It is a difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers. Problems in this area causes some to leave teaching. A major reason was negative student attitudes and discipline.
Effective classroom management requires awareness, patience, good timing, boundaries, and instinct. Unsurprisingly, there is no silver bullet for classroom management success. That said, as we pored over the more than responses, we did see some clear trends. Here are the most often cited and creative approaches. To learn effectively, your students need a healthy you, said our experienced teachers. So get enough sleep, eat healthy food, and take steps to attend to your own well-being.
3. Be available before and after school in case a student needs help or simply needs to talk to you. 4. Praise students for good.
Mee, Ed. Nayak, H. He does not believe in the concept of mental illness unless there is something organically wrong with the brain that can be confirmed by a pathologist. This is done with class meetings, clear rules, and contracts. An operant is a behavior that acts on the surrounding environment to produce a consequence.
Classroom management: Creating and maintaining positive learning environments PDF, 2. Classroom management infographic. Classroom management professional learning discussion guide.
Она стояла отдельно от остальных и смотрела на него, смеясь и плача. - Дэвид… Слава Богу. Я думала, что потеряла .
Она уже собиралась вылезать, как вдруг ожил радиотелефон. Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины. - Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос.
Он поехал в Испанию не ради денег. Он сделал это из-за Сьюзан. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор - ее наставник и покровитель. Сьюзан многим ему обязана; потратить день на то, чтобы исполнить его поручение, - это самое меньшее, что он мог для нее сделать. К сожалению, утром все сложилось не так, как он планировал. Беккер намеревался позвонить Сьюзан с борта самолета и все объяснить. Он подумал было попросить пилота радировать Стратмору, чтобы тот передал его послание Сьюзан, но не решился впутывать заместителя директора в их личные дела.
Похоже, что-то стряслось, - сказала Сьюзан. - Наверное, увидел включенный монитор. - Черт возьми! - выругался коммандер. - Вчера вечером я специально позвонил дежурному лаборатории систем безопасности и попросил его сегодня не выходить на работу. Сьюзан это не удивило.
Он что-то им говорит. Но что. Дэвид на экране застыл в глубокой задумчивости. - Разница, - бормотал он себе под нос.
Тела танцующих слились так плотно, что он не мог рассмотреть, во что они одеты. Британского флага нигде не было. Ясно, что ему не удастся влиться в это море, которое раздавит его, как утлую лодчонку.
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