File Name: construction safety management and engineering .zip
Topics selected to be included in this handbook cover a wide range of issues in the area of maintenance management and engineering to cater for all those interested in maintenance whether practitioners or researchers. Provide managers and safety professionals with basic and essential information on these hot topics.
All Rights Reserved. The construction industry experiences high injury and fatality rates and is far from achieving a zero-injury goal. Thus, effective safety management systems are critical to ongoing efforts to improve safety. An appropriate definition of safety management systems is required, and the elements included in a safety management system should be identified to be used by practitioners to improve safety. A variety of safety management systems have been introduced by researchers and organizations.
Most have been developed based on the root causes of injuries and fatalities within organizations. This review paper gives an overview of different safety management systems in various fields to identify the similarities and differences in these systems. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the state-of-the art research on a variety of safety management systems and related methods of measurement.
This paper also provides background studies of developing safety management systems. The primary contribution of this review to the body of knowledge is providing insights into existing safety management systems and their critical elements with appropriate methods of safety performance measurement, which can enable owners, contractors, and decision makers to choose and implement elements.
Cite this paper: Elyas Jazayeri, Gabriel B. Elyas Jazayeri , Gabriel B. Dadi Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. Article Outline 1. Introduction 2. Characteristics of Construction Industry 3. Why Safety Management? Definition of Safety Management System 5. Efficacy of Safety Management Systems 7. Necessity of Safety Performance Measurement 8. Leading Indictors 9. Discussion Despite the significant improvement since the Occupational Safety and Health Act of , workers still experience high injury and fatality rates in comparison to other industries Bureau of Labor Statistics, There are more than 60, fatalities reported every year in the construction industry around the world Lingard, According to Zhou et al.
Almost half of all fatalities in were contracted workers workers working on construction projects, which, of them were laborers, 48 of them were electricians, 44 of them were first line supervisors, 42 of them were roofers, and 25 of them were painters and construction maintenance workers BLS, The death rate for construction workers in the U. S seems to be significantly higher than rates around the world Ringen et al. Lack of uniform parameters globally makes the comparison complicated.
As an example, U. S studies include hazardous material waste cleanup, but European countries usually do not. The German fatality rate does not include structural steel erection Ringen et al.
The accuracy of this data is often argued. According to Weddle , injury surveillance systems could have problems at either employee level, organizational level, or both. If this does not happen, there is no record of it. If the data for the logs are not accurate, then it leads to flawed data in the BLS.
One of the possible reasons that research about safety gets significant attention among construction firms could be the cost of accidents, both directly and indirectly. Injury compensation payment that construction workers receive is about double the amount that workers in other industries receive Georgine et al. Generally, construction accident costs range from 7. According to Rikhardsson and Impgaard , costs associated with each accident can be categorized in three types.
Variable costs vary with the number of missed days that the company pays for the lost wages. The second type of cost is a fixed cost. These costs the company for every accident due to administration and communication expenses. The objective of the paper is to review the state of knowledge regarding safety management systems in different organizations as well as introducing active and passive methods of safety performance measurement in construction.
Background study and model development of multiple safety management system as well as their elements will be discussed in detail. This paper can be used by practitioners in order to implement safety management system with appropriate methods of measuring the elements in the system. It also can be beneficial for researchers working in related fields. Characteristics of Construction Industry According to Hallowell , there are three main characteristics in the construction industry that have a direct effect on construction safety.
Each characteristic will be discussed briefly: Fragmentation One of the unique features of the construction industry is its fragmentation. The most prevalent delivery method in the U. In this method, the constructor is solely responsible for worker safety, and historically, designers have not addressed site safety in their design since they feel that they do not have adequate training Gambatese, Modern delivery methods, that designers and constructors work together, could lead to better safety performance J Hinze, ; Hecker et al.
One study shows that there is a difference in project performance as well as safety performance in Design-Build DB and Design-Bid-Build projects, of which DB projects had higher safety and project performance Thomas et al. Dynamic Work Environment Unlike manufacturing, construction tasks are not repeatable. Each job site has its own characteristics, and makes construction work dynamic.
Construction workers do a variety of tasks and their next job could be a completely different construction project.
Hallowell has compared manufacturing and construction in terms of work condition, and findings show that repetition, task predictability, and task standardization are high in manufacturing and low in construction, which could be a reason for differences in fatality rate between these two industries. Table 1 outlines a variety of safety culture definitions. Table 1. The use of safety management systems has been more common in last three decades.
Researchers have investigated root causes of accidents on a variety of construction sites Hinze et al. Based on the literature review, the first step toward a safety management system was to investigate and find the variables related to injuries and fatalities.
Researchers have tried not to find just any correlation, but the right causation between the incidents and the variables that have caused those injuries or fatalities.
Shannon et al. Likewise, Habeck et al. Similarly, Hunt et al. The paper will be divided into two parts; definitions and background of safety management systems and types of safety measurements that will be introduced later.
Definition of Safety Management System There is no consensus on a definition of safety management systems among organizations and agencies Robson et al. Elements of Safety Management Systems in Different Organizations Each organization has its own definition and elements for implementing safety management systems. There is research that has drawn the elements of a safety management systems by comparing high and low accident companies Smith et al.
Other research has drawn elements associated with good safety performance based on cases studies of highly reliable organizations Rochlin ; Roberts Many research projects have drawn elements of good safety management systems by an analysis of accidents Hurst et al. Most of the safety management models have been developed by researchers. According to Hale et al. It should also be noted that, in the past, most studies on safety management have been done by researchers in the fields of psychology, engineering, and sociology Vaughn ; Gehman ; Shrivasta ; Perrow This could be a reason for having multiple definitions and approaches toward safety.
According to Choudhry et al. Reducing the number of injuries to personnel and operatives in the workplace through the prevention and control of workplace hazards, 2. Minimizing the risk of major accidents, 3. Controlling workplace risks improve employee morale and enhance productivity, 4. Minimizing production interruptions and reducing material and equipment damage, 5. Reducing the cost of insurance as well as the cost of employee absences, 6.
Minimizing legal cost of accident litigation, fines, reducing expenditures on emergency supplies. Generally, safety management system elements consist of three main parts: 1.
Administrative management elements, 2. Operational technical elements, and 3. OTAR has introduced six elements for its safety management system. The firs component of a safety management system is objective, which is planning for reaching the goals and proposed method, and can include vision and mission as well. The primary reason for making an objective is motivation for the whole organization.
The other component is defining roles and responsibilities. The next component of a safety management system is the identification of hazards, and includes initial hazard identification reports and safety assessment. The next element is risk assessment and mitigation that the methods of analyzing risks will be discussed and methods for mitigating risks will be decided. Another component is monitoring and evaluation that could be review, audit, or another method that could be applied for quality assurance.
The last element of a safety management system is documentation, and states documenting all the safety management system processes like existing manuals, safety records, permit, and allowance or any other related thing that can be documented should be put on record OTAR, The Federal Aviation Administration demonstrates four essential components for developing safety management system. They are safety policy, safety assurance, safety risk management, and safety promotion.
This management system has been gained significant attention among industries and academia and also it is a free tool that is available to public in order to improve safety performance. The first element is management commitment. According to Oregon OSHA , there are methods for showing employees that management is serious about creating a safe workplace for the employees, such as setting measurable objectives like organizational financial goals.
Download Strategic Safety Management in Construction and Engineering PDF book free online — From Strategic Safety Management in Construction and Engineering PDF: Although the construction and engineering sector makes important contributions to the economic, social, and environmental objectives of a nation, it has a notorious reputation for being an unsafe industry in which to work. Buy from Amazon. Despite the fact that safety performance in the industry has improved, injuries and fatalities still occur frequently. To address this, the industry needs to evolve further by integrating safety into all decision making processes. The principles covered here include the economics of safety, safety climate and culture, skills for safety, safety training and learning, safety in design, risk management, building information modelling, and safety research methods and the research-practice nexus. They are integrated into a strategic safety management framework which comprises strategy development, implementation, and evaluation. Practical techniques are included to apply the principles in the context of the construction and engineering industry and projects.
Category: Built Environment. Business process reengineering BPR is a management improvement tool that entails radical changes to organizations' core processes, culture and legacy systems. Technology development quality in architectural design is affected by the quality of the process and factors used to develop it.
Murat Gunduz, Basil K. The paper addresses the context in which the construction industry is considered risky, as the intense labor and machine environment interacts with acceleration and overlapping activities. This situation results in accidents and fatalities. A high number of accidents and fatalities leads to additional costs and delays, detrimental to all stakeholders. Hazard identification and quantification of their impacts on building safety are crucial for planning. Classifying security risks is a complex process, and risks are interconnected.
Zou, P. Wagner, P. Lingard, H. Reason, J. Dingsdag, D. Hampson, K.
PDF | Safety issues have gained vital importance throughout the construction industry. Assistant Professor, Construction Engineering and Management, Na-.Abigail K. 13.06.2021 at 16:52
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