complete pdf the perception and causes of malaria in pregnancy Monday, June 7, 2021 11:09:40 PM

Complete Pdf The Perception And Causes Of Malaria In Pregnancy

File Name: complete the perception and causes of malaria in pregnancy.zip
Size: 1511Kb
Published: 08.06.2021

Malaria accounts for approximately 1 million deaths annually and about , deaths in Nigeria alone. Pregnant women and their unborn babies are particularly vulnerable to the adverse consequences of malaria. This study assessed the knowledge, perception, and preventive practices for malaria in pregnancy MiP among women in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was adopted. A total of respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique.

Box , Gulu, Uganda. O Box , Kampala, Uganda. Pregnant women and their unborn children are vulnerable to malaria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 postconflict IDP camps of Gulu district selected randomly as clusters. Most pregnant women in the post conflict IDP camps have relatively high knowledge about malaria transmission, signs, symptoms, and consequences during pregnancy. However, majority of respondents had misconception about the cause of malaria while a few had misconception about the mode of malaria transmission.

An estimated 30 million women living in malaria endemic areas of Africa become pregnant each year [ 1 ]. Pregnant women and their unborn children are vulnerable to malaria, which is a major cause of perinatal mortality, low birth weight, and maternal anaemia [ 2 ]. The poor bear the highest burden of malaria. They are at higher risk of becoming infected with malaria because they live in dwelling that offer little protection from mosquitoes [ 3 ].

Malaria prevention during pregnancy is a major public health challenge and the Roll Back Malaria RBM global Partnership has recommended a three prong approach for reducing the burden of malaria among pregnant women which are effective case management, use of insecticide treated nets ITNs , and intermittent presumptive treatment IPT [ 4 ].

In Uganda, the government has promoted the use of insecticide treated nets ITNs and intermittent presumptive treatment IPT among pregnant women.

Several studies conducted in malaria-endemic areas of Africa regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward malaria control measures among pregnant women indicate that malaria is perceived as a serious illness, and knowledge of malaria risks during pregnancy is relatively high [ 6 — 10 ].

A number of studies also reveal that misconceptions concerning malaria still exist and that practices for the control of malaria have been unsatisfactory [ 11 , 12 ]. The study was conducted in IDP camps of Gulu district.

Gulu district has two counties Aswa and Omoro and a municipality. The district is part of the region which was affected, by the two decades of arm conflict. The populations were forced into concentration camps with little social and health services and therefore lived in appalling conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 randomly selected IDP camps.

A camp constituted a cluster. Ten 10 IDP camps were randomly selected in each county. The numbers of pregnant women interviewed per IDP camp were determined using proportion to size cluster sampling method. We determine the centre of each IDP camp first and then the starting household. Consecutive sampling method was used by moving to the next nearest household. A total of pregnant women were interviewed. Inclusion criteria were pregnant women who gave self-report of carrying pregnancy.

Being residents of the 20 selected camps. Being present on the interview date and giving a written informed consent to participate in the study. The exclusion criteria were being seriously sick or in labour. The study was approved by the Faculty of Medicine Research and Ethic Committee, Makerere University which granted permission to study pregnant women less than 18 years as emancipated minors.

A semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistants who were fluent in the local language Acholi. The questionnaire was translated into Acholi with the help of an expert linguistic and back-translated into English and pretested in municipality before administering to the study population.

Data was collected on sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge on malaria. Data was entered into Epidata version 3. Continuous variables were summarised using means and categorical variables were displayed into tables and charts for general description Figure 1.

Most respondents were Para 3 or more. Detailed socio-demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1. Other signs and symptoms of malaria mentioned are presented in Table 2. Table 3 summarises malaria knowledge among pregnant women. The age of respondent was found not to be correlated with malaria knowledge and was not significantly associated with malaria knowledge. Our study shows that in the post conflict IDP camps of Gulu district, pregnant women have not demonstrated a better understanding of the cause of malaria as observed by other studies done elsewhere [ 15 — 17 ].

Majority of respondents reported to have ever heard about malaria with the main source of information being from health centres followed by radio. However, a great percentage of the pregnant women indicated that they had not heard about malaria. In contrast, a study done in Tanzania shows that almost all the respondents have never heard about malaria [ 18 ].

Indeed, in the local dialect the word two lyeto means fever caused by mosquitoes. This is a misconception about the cause of malaria because mosquito is a vector. This misconception was mentioned by majority across educational status and was found to be weakly correlated with educational level. However, when a chi-square test was performed, it was found to be statistically significant. Other study done in Ethiopia indicates that educational status was not significantly associated with basic awareness about the cause of malaria [ 19 ].

While mosquito was implicated as a cause of malaria, the aetiologic agent of malaria was not mentioned as people usually incriminate mosquitoes as the causative agents of malaria [ 20 — 22 ]. Other causes of malaria mentioned by pregnant women were cold food, playing in rain, cold weather, and eating mango. A study done in Kampala by Njama et al. Another study done in Uganda shows that malaria is believed to be caused by poor diet and exposure to bad environmental conditions [ 24 ].

While in Ghana, it has been reported that malaria is presumed to be caused as a result of excessive heat and eating oily or starchy food [ 25 , 26 ]. In Guatemala, malaria is thought to be caused by exposure to cold or wet conditions, weakness or poor general health, poor eating habits, and problems related to hygiene [ 27 ].

Also, a study from coastal Kenya found that most mothers did not know the association between mosquitoes and malaria [ 28 ]. Misconceptions about malaria still exist among pregnant women in this study. Therefore, there is need for awareness creation among pregnant women to know that mosquito is a vector for malaria parasite that causes malaria so that all these misconceptions are addressed. Therefore, public health education interventions should always be designed to cover the existing knowledge and should be implemented for a sufficient length of time for it to be effective [ 29 ].

Majority of the pregnant women knew that mosquito bite was the mode of malaria transmission. This demonstrated high level of knowledge on malaria transmission compared with findings from other malaria endemic countries [ 30 , 31 ]. However, this study also revealed evidence of knowledge gaps about malaria transmission by some pregnant women who reported that malaria is transmitted through cold weather, from dirt, when you do not sleep under net and others had no clue on the mode of malaria transmission.

It is evident therefore that misconception about malaria transmission still exist in endemic country like Uganda as shown by the results of this study. This study has demonstrated that pregnant women had a good knowledge about malaria signs and symptoms. The most commonly mentioned symptom was feeling cold, followed by fever, headache, vomiting, and jaundice. This high level of awareness of the clinical features of malaria might be due to increased access to mass media, health education by health workers, and the village health team in the community.

Other studies done elsewhere also shows similar results that participants had good knowledge on malaria signs and symptoms [ 30 , 32 ]. A half of the respondent cited abortion as the consequences of malaria infection during pregnancy. Other consequences of malaria infection during pregnancy mentioned by respondents were anaemia, transmission across to the foetus, premature delivery of babies, foetal death, death of the pregnant woman, and giving birth to a low weight baby.

Other study done in Nigeria indicates that knowledge of the consequences of malaria during pregnancy was poor among pregnant women [ 34 ]. This study has shown that pregnant women knew at least one of the consequences of malaria infection during pregnancy. This knowledge is good for setting up appropriate malaria prevention strategy among pregnant women since they are aware of malaria danger during pregnancy. Other study has indicated that the increased risk posed to pregnant women by malaria was almost universally recognized, but the knowledge of the health impact of malaria to the health of the foetus was very low [ 35 ].

Also, most of the pregnant women had knowledge of group of people who are perceived to be at risk for malaria. However, some of the respondent could not tell people who were at risk for malaria.

The lack of knowledge by majority of pregnant women that they were at increase risk for malaria calls for more sensitisation in the community so that awareness is increased among pregnant women about malaria infection during pregnancy.

This study indicates that pregnant women in the post conflict IDP camps in Gulu district were aware about malaria transmission, signs, symptoms, and consequences of malaria during pregnancy.

However, misconception about the cause of malaria still exists and thus, there is need for more public health education about the cause of malaria among pregnant women to minimise misconceptions about the cause of malaria. Also, there is need for more awareness creation so that malaria signs and symptoms are well understood by pregnant women to promote early treatment for malaria as well as preventive and control efforts in the community.

Henry participated in the conception, design and implementation of the study, statistical analysis, interpretation, and drafting of the paper. Kitara participated in study design, interpretation, and drafting of the paper. Orach participated in study conception, design, statistical analysis, interpretation, and drafting of the paper. All authors read and approved the final paper. The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Belgian Technical Cooperation in Uganda for the scholarship given to the author.

We specially thank the pregnant women for accepting to participate in this study. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Academic Editor: Polrat Wilairatana. Received 12 May Revised 05 Jul Accepted 06 Jul Published 14 Sep Abstract Background. Background An estimated 30 million women living in malaria endemic areas of Africa become pregnant each year [ 1 ]. Figure 1. Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. References B.

Box , Gulu, Uganda. O Box , Kampala, Uganda. Pregnant women and their unborn children are vulnerable to malaria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 postconflict IDP camps of Gulu district selected randomly as clusters. Most pregnant women in the post conflict IDP camps have relatively high knowledge about malaria transmission, signs, symptoms, and consequences during pregnancy. However, majority of respondents had misconception about the cause of malaria while a few had misconception about the mode of malaria transmission.

The negligence of health education and promotion has contributed to increase in morbidity and mortality of malaria among children. This study was carried out in selected secondary schools in Akure, South-western Nigeria to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and perceptive of the use of treated mosquito nets among children of age group 9 and 17 years. Demographic information of respondents, awareness, knowledge and perception on malaria was obtained. Therefore, health education on awareness of insecticide-treated net should be emphasised for successful elimination of malaria. Malaria is an internationally devastating disease. Children are especially vulnerable, accounting for more than two thirds of global malaria deaths. This test helps health providers swiftly distinguish between malarial and non-malarial fevers, enabling appropriate treatment.

Metrics details. The objective of this study is to explore and document perceptions and attitude associated with uptake of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy infection during pregnancy in Enugu State, Nigeria. The people expressed fairly good knowledge of malaria, having lived in the malaria-endemic communities. However, some were ignorant on what should be done to prevent malaria in pregnancy. Those who were aware of the use of insecticide-treated bednets and intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy however lamented the attitude of the health workers, who make access to these interventions difficult.

Correspondence Address : Dr. Background: Malaria accounts for approximately 1 million deaths annually and about , deaths in Nigeria alone. Pregnant women and their unborn babies are particularly vulnerable to the adverse consequences of malaria. This study assessed the knowledge, perception, and preventive practices for malaria in pregnancy MiP among women in Lagos, Nigeria.

Malawi is a malaria-endemic country and approximately 6 million cases are reported annually. Improving knowledge of malaria causes and symptoms, and the overall perception towards malaria and its preventive measures is vital for malaria control.

Background

Malaria in humans is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium : Plasmodium falciparum, P. In addition, P. Plasmodium species are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is a major international public health problem; 91 countries reported an estimated million infections and , deaths in , according to the World Health Organization WHO World Malaria Report Travelers going to malaria-endemic countries are at risk for contracting the disease, and almost all of the approximately 1, cases per year of malaria in the United States are imported. The information presented here was accurate at the time of publication; however, the risk of malaria can change rapidly and from year to year because of changes in local weather conditions, mosquito vector density, and prevalence of infection. Updated information can be found on the CDC website at www.

View Visitor Stats. Pengembang Jurnal. Dyah Wulan S. Aisyah, R. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional, 9 2 , — Briand, V. Malaria Journal, 15 1 , 1—

Despite best efforts and tremendous progress, malaria continues to infect an estimated million people annually, leading to approximately half a million deaths. An estimated Both P.

Although the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets ITNs in malaria prevention is well documented, the low coverage of ITNs in malaria endemic countries necessitates investigation on factors that limit access to this intervention. An exploratory study was conducted in Mukono district, Uganda, to assess perceptions and use of ITNs. Results show that malaria is perceived as a serious illness among pregnant women and children, and there is high awareness on the benefits of ITNs. However, ITNs are used by few people, mainly because of their high cost and the perception that the chemicals used to treat them have dangerous effects on pregnancy and the foetus. Other factors that influence the use of ITNs include low utilization of antenatal care, husband's lack of interest in malaria prevention and the perception that adolescent girls and primigravidae are at a low risk of getting malaria.

 Ну да? - Он хмыкнул.  - Давай я тебе помогу. - Ах ты, пакостник.

 Пора, ребята! - Джабба повернулся к директору.  - Мне необходимо решение. Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем. Как только эти два агрессора увидят, что Бастион пал, они издадут боевой клич.

Сьюзан кивнула. - То есть вы хотите сказать, Танкадо не волновало, что кто-то начнет разыскивать Северную Дакоту, потому что его имя и адрес защищены компанией ARA.

1 Comments

Lola M. 17.06.2021 at 03:49

The situation of filipino youth a national survey pdf if you could read my mind guitar tab pdf

LEAVE A COMMENT