File Name: robin dunbar grooming gossip and the evolution of language .zip
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Arguing that gossiping is vital to a society, and that there is no such thing as idle gossip, this book disputes the assumption that language developed in male-male relationships. The author believes that, on the contrary, language evolved amongMoreArguing that gossiping is vital to a society, and that there is no such thing as idle gossip, this book disputes the assumption that language developed in male-male relationships. The author believes that, on the contrary, language evolved among women, and contends that, although men are just as likely to natter as women, women gossip more about other people, thus strengthening the female-female relationships that underpin society.
Dunbar, R. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1. Human evolution. Social evolution.
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Berwick examine how children can learn appropriate syntactic ordering on the basis of lexical knowledge. Although this volume will be a useful reference for those developing bootstrapping models themselves , it will be most appropriate for computational modelers of other persuasions e. By Michael Levy. New York: Oxford University Press, CALL is in vogue at present, in language teaching and learning.
The social hypothesis for language origins is based on the claim that primates use social grooming to bond social groups, and the time available for grooming has an upper limit due to the demands of foraging and food processing. The grooming time is a linear function of group size in both primates and birds so it sets an upper limit to the size of community that can be integrated using the conventional primate mechanism. One of the researchers suggested that language represented a phase shift in communication that allowed this particular glass ceiling to be breached, making it possible for hominins to evolve significantly larger groups than those found among primates. Another researcher showed that the vocal repertoire of the chickadee becomes structurally more complex as group size increases. These findings suggest that the vocal repertoire can become more complex in order to provide a supplementary mechanism for social bonding. The correlation between brain size and group size in primates implies that the first stage of vocal complexity must have occurred with the appearance of the genus Homo around 2 million years ago.
What a big brain we have for all the small talk we make. Psychologist Robin Dunbar looks at gossip as an instrument of social order and cohesion—much like the endless grooming with which our primate cousins tend to their social relationships. All their grooming is not so much about hygiene as it is about cementing bonds, making friends, and influencing fellow primates. But for early humans, grooming as a way to social success posed a problem: given their large social groups of or so, our earliest ancestors would have had to spend almost half their time grooming one another—an impossible burden. What Dunbar suggests—and his research, whether in the realm of primatology or in that of gossip, confirms—is that humans developed language to serve the same purpose, but far more efficiently. It seems there is nothing idle about chatter, which holds together a diverse, dynamic group—whether of hunter-gatherers, soldiers, or workmates.
Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language is a book by the anthropologist Robin Dunbar , in which the author argues that language evolved from social grooming. He further suggests that a stage of this evolution was the telling of gossip, an argument supported by the observation that language is adapted for storytelling. The book has been criticised on the grounds that since words are so cheap, Dunbar's "vocal grooming" would fall short in amounting to an honest signal. Further, the book provides no compelling story [ citation needed ] for how meaningless vocal grooming sounds might become syntactical speech. Dunbar argues that gossip does for group-living humans what manual grooming does for other primates —it allows individuals to service their relationships and thus maintain their alliances on the basis of the principle: if you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours. Dunbar argues that as humans began living in increasingly larger social groups, the task of manually grooming all one's friends and acquaintances became so time-consuming as to be unaffordable.
Machiavellian intelligence ; Social brain hypothesis. Posits that language evolved as a means of forming and maintaining alliances when group size became too large for relationships to be managed solely through grooming. The gossip and grooming hypothesis is an attempt to explain the steady and pronounced increase in hominid brain size over the last four million years.