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In science and engineering , the weight of an object is the force acting on the object due to gravity. Some standard textbooks [4] define weight as a vector quantity, the gravitational force acting on the object. Others [5] [6] define weight as a scalar quantity, the magnitude of the gravitational force.

Forces Ks3 Test In equation form, we write. KS3 SATs papers have been replaced with formal teacher assessments in each of the National Curriculum subjects: English However the KS3 tests are useful to track the progress of children and are often used in schools, particularly during end of year exams. So you can focus on things like animals, chemistry, compound words, countries, musical instruments. Forces can also make objects change direction or shape. Magnets are objects that can exert an invisible force called magnetism, which pulls on some metals such as iron and nickel.

The Isaac Newton School of Driving: Physics and Your Car

Anti-gravity also known as non-gravitational field is a hypothetical phenomenon of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. It does not refer to the lack of weight under gravity experienced in free fall or orbit , or to balancing the force of gravity with some other force, such as electromagnetism or aerodynamic lift.

Anti-gravity is a recurring concept in science fiction, particularly in the context of spacecraft propulsion. Examples are the gravity blocking substance "Cavorite" in H.

What's commonly misconstrued is that while anti-gravity is the nullification of gravity, it is not repulsive gravity or negative gravity. The possibility of creating anti-gravity depends upon the detection and description of gravity at the quantum dimension; as of physicists have yet to discover the quantum nature of gravity. During the summer of , Isaac Newton observed an apple variety Flower of Kent falling from the tree in his garden, thus realizing the principle of universal gravitation.

Theoretical quantum physicists have postulated the existence of a quantum gravity particle, the graviton. Various theoretical explanations of the reality of quantum gravity include the Superstring theory [3] Gabriele Veneziano , et al. In Newton's law of universal gravitation , gravity was an external force transmitted by unknown means.

In the 20th century, Newton's model was replaced by general relativity where gravity is not a force but the result of the geometry of spacetime. Under general relativity, anti-gravity is impossible except under contrived circumstances. In businessman Roger Babson founder of Babson College formed the Gravity Research Foundation to study ways to reduce the effects of gravity. Over time the Foundation turned its attention away from trying to control gravity, to simply better understanding it.

The Foundation nearly disappeared after Babson's death in Smoot , who later won the Nobel Prize in physics. General relativity was introduced in the s, but development of the theory was greatly slowed by a lack of suitable mathematical tools. It is claimed the US Air Force also ran a study effort throughout the s and into the s.

However, there is little outside confirmation of these stories, and since they take place in the midst of the policy by press release era, it is not clear how much weight these stories should be given. It is known that there were serious efforts underway at the Glenn L. Martin Company. Military support for anti-gravity projects was terminated by the Mansfield Amendment of , which restricted Department of Defense spending to only the areas of scientific research with explicit military applications.

The Mansfield Amendment was passed specifically to end long-running projects that had little to show for their efforts. Under general relativity, gravity is the result of following spatial geometry change in the normal shape of space caused by local mass-energy.

This theory holds that it is the altered shape of space, deformed by massive objects, that causes gravity, which is actually a property of deformed space rather than being a true force. Although the equations cannot normally produce a "negative geometry", it is possible to do so by using " negative mass ". The same equations do not, of themselves, rule out the existence of negative mass.

Both general relativity and Newtonian gravity appear to predict that negative mass would produce a repulsive gravitational field. In particular, Sir Hermann Bondi proposed in that negative gravitational mass, combined with negative inertial mass, would comply with the strong equivalence principle of general relativity theory and the Newtonian laws of conservation of linear momentum and energy. Bondi's proof yielded singularity-free solutions for the relativity equations. Normal mass, on the other hand, will fall away from the negative matter.

He noted that two identical masses, one positive and one negative, placed near each other will therefore self-accelerate in the direction of the line between them, with the negative mass chasing after the positive mass. Forward pointed out that the self-acceleration effect is due to the negative inertial mass, and could be seen induced without the gravitational forces between the particles.

The Standard Model of particle physics, which describes all currently known forms of matter, does not include negative mass. Although cosmological dark matter may consist of particles outside the Standard Model whose nature is unknown, their mass is ostensibly known — since they were postulated from their gravitational effects on surrounding objects, which implies their mass is positive.

The proposed cosmological dark energy , on the other hand, is more complicated, since according to general relativity the effects of both its energy density and its negative pressure contribute to its gravitational effect. Under general relativity any form of energy couples with spacetime to create the geometries that cause gravity.

A longstanding question was whether or not these same equations applied to antimatter. The issue was considered solved in with the development of CPT symmetry , which demonstrated that antimatter follows the same laws of physics as "normal" matter, and therefore has positive energy content and also causes and reacts to gravity like normal matter see gravitational interaction of antimatter. For much of the last quarter of the 20th century, the physics community was involved in attempts to produce a unified field theory , a single physical theory that explains the four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.

Scientists have made progress in unifying the three quantum forces , but gravity has remained "the problem" in every attempt. This has not stopped any number of such attempts from being made, however.

Generally these attempts tried to "quantize gravity" by positing a particle, the graviton , that carried gravity in the same way that photons light carry electromagnetism. Simple attempts along this direction all failed, however, leading to more complex examples that attempted to account for these problems.

Two of these, supersymmetry and the relativity related supergravity , both required the existence of an extremely weak "fifth force" carried by a graviphoton , which coupled together several "loose ends" in quantum field theory, in an organized manner. As a side effect, both theories also all but required that antimatter be affected by this fifth force in a way similar to anti-gravity, dictating repulsion away from mass.

Several experiments were carried out in the s to measure this effect, but none yielded positive results. In CERN looked for an antigravity effect in an experiment designed to study the energy levels within antihydrogen.

The antigravity measurement was just an "interesting sideshow" and was inconclusive. There are solutions of the field equations of general relativity which describe "warp drives" such as the Alcubierre metric and stable, traversable wormholes. This by itself is not significant, since any spacetime geometry is a solution of the field equations for some configuration of the stress—energy tensor field see exact solutions in general relativity.

General relativity does not constrain the geometry of spacetime unless outside constraints are placed on the stress—energy tensor. Warp-drive and traversable-wormhole geometries are well-behaved in most areas, but require regions of exotic matter ; thus they are excluded as solutions if the stress—energy tensor is limited to known forms of matter. Dark matter and dark energy are not understood enough at this present time to make general statements regarding their applicability to a warp-drive.

This program studied a number of "far out" designs for space propulsion that were not receiving funding through normal university or commercial channels. Anti-gravity-like concepts were investigated under the name "diametric drive". There have been a number of attempts to build anti-gravity devices, and a small number of reports of anti-gravity-like effects in the scientific literature.

None of the examples that follow are accepted as reproducible examples of anti-gravity. Gyroscopes produce a force when twisted that operates "out of plane" and can appear to lift themselves against gravity.

Although this force is well understood to be illusory, even under Newtonian models, it has nevertheless generated numerous claims of anti-gravity devices and any number of patented devices. None of these devices have ever been demonstrated to work under controlled conditions, and have often become the subject of conspiracy theories as a result. Another "rotating device" example is shown in a series of patents granted to Henry Wallace between and His devices consist of rapidly spinning disks of brass , a material made up largely of elements with a total half-integer nuclear spin.

He claimed that by rapidly rotating a disk of such material, the nuclear spin became aligned, and as a result created a "gravitomagnetic" field in a fashion similar to the magnetic field created by the Barnett effect.

In , it was reported that a weight decreases along the axis of a right spinning gyroscope. In , while still in high school , Thomas Townsend Brown found that a high-voltage Coolidge tube seemed to change mass depending on its orientation on a balance scale. Through the s Brown developed this into devices that combined high voltages with materials with high dielectric constants essentially large capacitors ; he called such a device a "gravitator".

Brown made the claim to observers and in the media that his experiments were showing anti-gravity effects. Brown would continue his work and produced a series of high-voltage devices in the following years in attempts to sell his ideas to aircraft companies and the military.

He coined the names Biefeld—Brown effect and electrogravitics in conjunction with his devices. Brown tested his asymmetrical capacitor devices in a vacuum, supposedly showing it was not a more down-to-earth electrohydrodynamic effect generated by high voltage ion flow in air.

Electrogravitics is a popular topic in ufology , anti-gravity, free energy , with government conspiracy theorists and related websites, in books and publications with claims that the technology became highly classified in the early s and that it is used to power UFOs and the B-2 bomber. Follow-up studies on Brown's work and other claims have been conducted by R.

In , the Russian researcher Eugene Podkletnov claimed to have discovered, whilst experimenting with superconductors , that a fast rotating superconductor reduces the gravitational effect. Ning Li and Douglas Torr , of the University of Alabama in Huntsville proposed how a time dependent magnetic field could cause the spins of the lattice ions in a superconductor to generate detectable gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric fields in a series of papers published between and Douglas Torr and Timir Datta were involved in the development of a "gravity generator" at the University of South Carolina.

No further information about this university research project or the "Gravity Generator" device was ever made public. All attempts by this group to observe an anti-gravity effect by reproducing past experiments have been unsuccessful thus far. The foundation has offered a reward of one million euros for a reproducible anti-gravity experiment. The existence of a anti-gravity is a common theme in fantasy and science fiction. Apergy is a fictitious form of anti-gravitational energy first described by Percy Greg in his sword and planet novel Across the Zodiac.

Close , D. The inventor describes apergy as "a force obtained by blending positive and negative electricity with ultheic, the third element or state of electric energy" and calls apergy a "second phase of gravity", hinting at a third phase as well. Meek 's short story "Cold Light", which appeared in Astounding Stories of Super-Science , March , [68] apergy is mentioned as the opposite force of gravity.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Idea of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. Main article: History of gravitational theory. Main article: Gravitational shielding. Main article: United States gravity control propulsion research. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Area 51 Aerodynamic levitation Apergy Artificial gravity Burkhard Heim Casimir effect Clinostat Electrostatic levitation Exotic matter Gravitational interaction of antimatter Gravitational shielding Gravitational wave Heim theory Magnetic levitation Optical levitation Reactionless drive Tractor beam. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 23 July Papachristou 2 Mar - Electromagnetic waves, gravitational waves and the prophets who predicted them , p. Misner , Kip S.

Thorne , John Archibald Wheeler Gravitation , p.

Download PDF The Isaac Newton School of Driving: Physics and Your Car

Physical Science - Force and Newton's Laws what science says - enduring understanding, big ideas, generalizations Forces is a push or pull. What is the force that opposes motion? Laws of Motion. Quiz 3: 5 questionsPractice what you've learned, and level up on the above skills. History and Government Questions?


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For some people, driving is an art- for others, its a science. At the Isaac Newton School of Driving, though, every car is a laboratory on wheels and every drive an exciting journey into the world of physics. As explained by renowned science writerMoreFor some people, driving is an art- for others, its a science. As explained by renowned science writer and physics professor Barry Parker -- whose father was a car mechanic and garage owner -- almost every aspect of driving involves physics.

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Shadowthrone had managed to turn his throne round so that he could watch the First Sword and his entourage slowly dwindle into the northeast. Fife was not a rich earldom, or a large one. This night in particular was colder than any before. Some of the cars were packed full with belongings pressed against rear windows.

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Universe on wheels New Scientist. Many teachers of science use the automobile to exemplify the principles they wish to teach, whether it be the mechanics of acceleration or angular momentum, gearing, or the aerodynamics of drag. The author, Barry Parker, uses common experience as a platform for excursions into these areas and also in to less-predictable ones, such as the thermodynamics of gasoline and diesel engines, suspension systems, and chaos. Physics has played a critical role in warfare since the earliest times.

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Secured with SHA Encryption. Natasha McLachlan is a writer who currently lives in Southern California. She is an alumna of California College of the Arts, where she obtained her B. Her current work revolves around insurance guides and informational articles. She truly enjoys helping others learn more about everyday, practical matters through her work. She married her husband and began working in the family insurance business in

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Anti-gravity also known as non-gravitational field is a hypothetical phenomenon of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. It does not refer to the lack of weight under gravity experienced in free fall or orbit , or to balancing the force of gravity with some other force, such as electromagnetism or aerodynamic lift. Anti-gravity is a recurring concept in science fiction, particularly in the context of spacecraft propulsion. Examples are the gravity blocking substance "Cavorite" in H.

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