File Name: the descent of man general summary and conclusion chapter 5.zip
Conclusion - Chapter 5. Chapters 3 and 4 presented a detailed analysis of the story of John 9 from a speech act perspective.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Teachers often face difficult questions about evolution, many from parents and others who object to evolution being taught. Science has good answers to these questions, answers that draw on the evidence supporting evolution and on the nature of science. This chapter presents short answers to some of the most commonly asked questions.
Conclusion - Chapter 5. Chapters 3 and 4 presented a detailed analysis of the story of John 9 from a speech act perspective. I shall summarise my analysis by combining some important aspects in the following sections. A discussion of the relations between the clusters involves justifying the colon demarcations of the text.
Since each cluster has been analysed, I am now in a better position to do so. Although John 9 is divided into seven clusters in this analysis, other options could be considered. One of the best ways to determine other options is to scrutinise some of the major translations of the Bible, like Snyman does for the Letter to Philemon. The demarcations are introduced in the following diagram: 2. The diagram indicates that all seven divisions, except KJV, agree on two major breaks between verses 12 and 13, as well as between verses 34 and KJV also shows a minor break between verses 12 and KJV only has two major parts, containing five minor parts.
TEV and my own divisions share the same number of breaks without considering whether the breaks are minor or major. The only difference between them is in the third break where the breaking point differs. TEV notes the end of the third part at verse 16, while my own divisions consider it at verse The TEV break is rather unique.
Hence, while certain breaks are widely accepted, others show the different ways of understanding the flow of the text. Brodie suggests the criterion of physical movement as the clearest structural marker, which is "an indication that a scene is ending or beginning, someone either comes or goes or is called or is thrown out His point is plausible, but the demarcation cannot be determined solely on this ground, and not on any other single criteria.
It should be combined, taking into account content and other literary features such as other structural markers e. It is apparent from the diagram that my own divisions have the highest number of cluster demarcations. This is mainly because of the chiasm found in the text, as mentioned earlier cf.
Therefore, my demarcations can basically be justified once this chiasm is legitimately recognised. Each cluster describes the conversations between the characters. In these dialogues, the chiastic pattern emerges around the thematic, lexical and semantic parallels between the related clusters. I shall discuss this to demonstrate this point.
Clusters A and A' refer to the main character of Jesus, and the motifs of coming and sending of Jesus , The disciples, both of Jesus and of Moses the Pharisees , are also present in both clusters.
These clusters also share the themes of sight, blindness, sin, the works of God because Jesus' mission was to do the works of God , and the world. Moreover, it is significant to note that all these points serve as evidence for the inclusio formed between the first and last clusters in this Chapter cf. There is a contrastive association concerning the blind man's knowledge. In cluster B, the man still did not know Jesus well.
When he was asked where Jesus was, he answered "I do not know" v. In cluster B', however, he came to know Jesus well enough to believe in Him. The theme of knowledge is strongly evident in both clusters; the identity of Jesus is the focal point in this knowledge.
The physical presence of Jesus is also a key to these clusters. In cluster B, Jesus disappeared from the scene to reappear in cluster B'. This means that, except for the blind man, Jesus gets the narrative focus in cluster B', but when Jesus is not present in B, the focus shifts to other characters, the neighbours. Since the Jewish authorities interrogated the blind man in clusters C and C', these clusters are linked to each other.
In terms of characters, the blind man and the Jewish authorities, the Pharisees in C and the Jews in C', are present in both clusters. The identity and origin of Jesus are the focal points in both interrogations. The most important question was whether or not Jesus was a sinner. The question as to whether or not Jesus came from God was also the main dispute. In order to better understand these disputed points, the Jewish authorities in both clusters asked the blind man the same question concerning the process of the healing miracle ; This same question led the man to respond differently in the different situations.
While he obediently answered what happened to him in C, he refused to answer and rather challenged them in C'. In addition, both clusters refer to the themes of blindness, sight, sin, and sign. The main feature of this chiasm is cluster D. At first glance, this seems hard to believe, because the characters on stage, the parents and the Jews, were not the main characters in the story. Lee divides John 9 into three acts , , , under which she finds eight scenes in all.
She claims: "There is a distinct advantage to this structure as against the more common suggestion of seven scenes in a chiastic pattern" Lee She argues that to focus on this study's cluster D which is her Act 2, scene 3 "as the center of the narrative ignores the escalating of hostility which is the main feature of Act 2 and in which the fourth scene  is the most important" Lee Her argument, however, is not convincing, because the climax of the Jews' hostility is best captured and expressed not in cluster C' , but rather in cluster D, which contains the Jews' astonishing decision in verse In this instance, their determined hostility towards Jesus and his followers is depicted in extreme terms.
To focus on cluster D does not necessarily ignore their hostility, but enhances our understanding of their harsh and strongest attitude. In addition, although she further proposes to put a considerable weight to Acts 1 and 3 in relation to the above issue Lee , to take cluster D as the main feature does not ignore the importance of the points of contrast and similarity between Acts 1 and 3.
Furthermore, without cluster D, it may be true that the story would lose a great deal of its suspense, thrill and excitement, because the crucial information that a person's confession of Christ would lead to his expulsion from the synagogue underlies the entire story and plays a significant role in the plot and development of the story. For example, the strength of the main characters' confrontation with the antagonists, the Pharisees and the Jews, originates from the intense relationship with these Jewish authorities.
Although this relationship is best portrayed in the dialogue in cluster C', the fiercest relation as its climax is expressed in cluster D, as mentioned earlier. The parents' strange behaviour is conceivable when this information is released. This can even explain the reason why the neighbours brought the blind man to the Pharisees in verse 13 in cluster C, because they might also have been afraid of the Pharisees for this argument, cf.
Likewise, when the blind man asked the Jews whether they also wished to become Jesus' disciples, they reviled the blind man v. The reader may be puzzled by their overreaction, wondering why they were so angry with the blind man. However, the reader understands the Jews' reaction, because they were the ones who decided to use such an agreement in order to harm those who wished to associate themselves with Jesus. In addition, this information may highlight the profound significance of the blind man's faith in Jesus in verse Hence, cluster D contains crucial information regarding the entire story, and should thus be regarded as the central structure cf.
In order to explore another side of the relationships between the clusters, I shall examine the way in which Chapter 9 is organised.
On the level of the blind man, the protagonist of the story, this Chapter may be organised on the basis of a logical-means-purpose relationship. Basically, Jesus healed the blind man so that he could see both physically and spiritually.
On the level of Jesus, the other main character, this Chapter may be schematised in terms of a logical-means-result relationship, because Jesus, by virtue of the healing of the blind man, revealed his identity. He also accomplished his mission as judge, especially with regard to both the blind man and the Jewish authorities.
On the level of the Jewish authorities, this Chapter may be organised on the basis of a logical-reason-result relationship. Because they rejected Jesus, the man from God, they became blind and were thus declared guilty. Finally, despite all these unique relationships between the clusters, including the chiasm, it is a relief and amazing to know that the story as a whole develops according to a typical temporal progression. Hence, the entire narrative is organised cohesively.
After all, I hope that all the above arguments will help justify my own cluster demarcations of Chapter 9 of John's Gospel. Based on the speech acts used in this story cf, 'Diagram of speech acts used in John 9' in Appendix 5 , I shall discuss some significant points. To begin with, on the character level, when the five utterances of the neighbours in cluster B are examined, three of these are question speech acts.
It can, therefore, be said that question speech acts are dominant. Likewise, when the Jewish authorities' the Jews and the Pharisees utterances in clusters C, D, C' and A' are scrutinised, six out of ten also constitute question speech acts.
On the other hand, five out of seven utterances of the blind man in clusters B, C and B' excluding C' are responsive speech acts. Similarly, two out of three utterances of the parents in cluster D indicate responsive speech acts. These figures demonstrate the roles assigned by the author to specific characters in the story.
The neighbours, along with the authorities, play the role of interrogators, and the blind man and his parents respond to these interrogators. This question-answer form basically makes up the story. The way in which the author organises this narrative can also be perceived by glancing at the speech acts used in the story.
Secondly, a few clusters display some peculiarity. Among the dialogues conducted between the characters, those in cluster C' are distinctive. In this cluster, a wide variety of speech acts are used to depict the heated debate between the blind man and the Jewish authorities: assertive, descriptive, informative, confirmative, dissentive, disputative, responsive so far, all Constatives , requestive, question and requirement these three are Directives.
In addition, all the utterances have more than two illocutionary forces, including the cases of indirect speech acts. These facts indicate that the language of the characters appears to become very complex in order to increase its rhetorical power, especially in the case of attempting to persuade the opponent s. To put it differently, this is attested by the utterances used by the Jewish authorities. As mentioned earlier, more than half of their utterances are question speech acts.
In cluster C', however, this proportion of question speech acts decreases to less than half, and the majority of their utterances include more than two illocutionary forces. In addition, this same point is even more strongly certified by the blind man's utterances. As noted earlier, the majority of his utterances, except in cluster C', are responsive speech acts.
In cluster C', particularly in verses , his utterances use various kinds of speech acts and have more than two illocutionary acts. In , his utterance even has four illocutionary forces. The tendency exhibited in cluster C' is quite striking. When examining clusters A, B' and A' where Jesus appears , it is obvious that the question-answer format is also followed in these clusters.
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The latter has been split into two separate entries. It will also maintain a historical and textual approach. Other entries in this encyclopedia cited at the end of the article and the bibliography should be consulted for discussions beyond this point. The issues will be examined under the following headings:. The continuous production of popular and professional biographical studies on Darwin provide ever new insights Ruse et al.
The first edition was published in , and the second, enlarged edition in this Wikisource edition is based on an unchanged reprint of the second edition. It followed his work, The Origin of Species , and is concerned with outlining the application of Darwin's theory to human evolution, and detailing the theory of sexual selection. The book touches on a number of related issues, including evolutionary psychology, evolutionary ethics, differences between human races, differences between human sexes, and the relevance of evolutionary theory to society. Warning: template has been deprecated. With Illustrations. During the successive reprints of the first edition of this work, published in , I was able to introduce several important corrections; and now that more time has elapsed, I have endeavoured to profit by the fiery ordeal through which the book has passed, and have taken advantage of all the criticisms which seem to me sound.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Prior chapters in this volume answer the what and why questions of teaching about evolution and the nature of science. As every educator knows, such discussions only set a stage. The actual play occurs when science teachers act on the basic content and well-reasoned arguments for inclusion of evolution and the nature of science in school science programs.
The first chapter--"Darwin's Discovery"--is a wonderful introduction to the life and thoughts of Charles Darwin. Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work worthy the interposition of a deity. More humble and I think truer to consider him created from animals. Darwin wrote these words in , twenty-one years before he was to publish The Origin of Species. He would go on to support this idea with overwhelming evidence, and in doing so he would bring about a profound change in our conception of ourselves.
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin , first published in , which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution , and details his theory of sexual selection , a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection. The book discusses many related issues, including evolutionary psychology , evolutionary ethics , differences between human races , differences between sexes, the dominant role of women in mate choice , and the relevance of the evolutionary theory to society. As Darwin wrote, he posted chapters to his daughter Henrietta for editing to ensure that damaging inferences could not be drawn, and also took advice from his wife Emma. Many of the figures were drawn by the zoological illustrator T.
It argues that the numerous traits and adaptations that differentiate species from each other also explain how species evolved over time and gradually diverged. Variations in organisms are apparent both within domesticated species and within species throughout the natural world. Variations in colors, structures, organs, and physical traits differentiate a multitude of species from one another. Heredity is the mechanism that perpetuates variations, Darwin argues, as traits are passed from parents to offspring. What is important about these variations to Darwin, though, is the way they allow species to adapt and survive in the natural world. He gives numerous examples of variations that illustrate the wondrous adaptations that allow species to survive in their natural environments: the beak that allows the woodpecker to gather insects, the wings that allow the bat to fly, the paddles that allow the porpoise to swim, and so on.
5. Man—Origin. I. Title. QHD2 ISBN General Summary and Conclusion. win's general method of working, with Chapter 9 par- Bright colours of caterpillars — Summary and concluding re-.
Darwin is considered the father of evolution. In truth, Darwin arrived at his theory of evolution at the same time another scientist, Alfred Russell Wallace, came to the same conclusion. However, Darwin was a respected scientist even before he wrote On the Origin of Species, while Wallace was relatively unknown, so people were more inclined to listen to Darwin. Origin enjoyed immediate success: its first printing sold out immediately and a second printing following a month later. Darwin's ideas found their way out of the scientific world and into the business world and even society itself. In many senses, Darwin's theories created a societal transformation.
Мы успеем выспаться перед поездкой на север. Дэвид грустно вздохнул: - Потому-то я и звоню. Речь идет о нашей поездке. Нам придется ее отложить. - Что-о? - Сьюзан окончательно проснулась.
Переключая передачи, Беккер мчался вперед между белокаменными стенами. Улочка имела множество поворотов и тупиков, и он быстро потерял направление. Он поднял вверх голову, надеясь увидеть Гиральду, но окружившие его со всех сторон стены были так высоки, что ему не удалось увидеть ничего, кроме тоненькой полоски начинающего светлеть неба. Беккер подумал, где может быть человек в очках в тонкой металлической оправе. Ясно, что тот не собирался сдаваться. Скорее всего идет по его следу пешком. Беккер с трудом вел мотоцикл по крутым изломам улочки.
Когда он начал просматривать отчет и проверять ежедневную СЦР, в голове у него вдруг возник образ Кармен, обмазывающей себя медом и посыпающей сахарной пудрой.