File Name: the healing power of sunlight and vitamin d .zip
Most humans depend on sun exposure to satisfy their requirements for vitamin D.
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The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recommends avoiding outdoor activities at midday, wearing clothing to cover the whole body, and daily use of sunscreen on usually exposed skin . The American Cancer Society advocates Slip! The U. Though these recommendations, all focused on reduction of skin cancer, are accompanied by brief acknowledgement of the importance of vitamin D for health, they persist in urging avoidance of the sun at the precise times when vitamin D can be synthesized in the skin—the hours between 10 am and 3 pm —and suggest that all necessary vitamin D can be obtained through food and dietary supplements. These recommendations are understandable from the viewpoint of preventing the 3. Moreover, they neglect that we have evolved with physiological adaptations to help protect the skin from the sun  when we are mindful of our exposure and do not burn. They neglect the fact that increased sun exposure, based on latitude, has been associated with protection from several different types of cancer [6—15] , type 1 diabetes  , multiple sclerosis [17,18] , and other diseases [19—23].
Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response. Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details. This timely study by Meltzer et al is a product of such efforts. Firstly, the authors picked a cohort study design which is suitable to quantify the strength of association between an exposure and an outcome.
Robert S. Stern, chair of the Department of Dermatology at Harvard-affiliated Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center , calls them "solar-phobes": people so concerned about getting skin cancer that they stay inside or cover every bit of skin. The marketing of ultrablocking sunscreens and special sun-protective clothing plays into these fears. There's no getting around the fact that sunlight is hard on your skin. Age gets blamed for wrinkles and rough, dry skin. But the real culprit is a combination of age and sun that dermatologists call photoaging. The longer, more penetrating UVA wavelengths may create highly reactive oxygen molecules capable of damaging skin cell membranes and the DNA inside.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that regulates calcium homeostasis and is vital for bone health 1. While it can also be obtained from dietary sources or supplements , vitamin D 3 cholecalciferol is synthesized in the human skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol upon exposure to ultraviolet-B UVB radiation from sunlight see the separate article on Vitamin D and Skin Health. Vitamin D 2 ergocalciferol is a vitamin D analog photosynthesized in plants, mushrooms, and yeasts; vitamin D 2 is also sometimes used in vitamin D food fortification 2. When vitamin D 3 in skin is inadequate due to insufficient exposure to UVB radiation, oral intake of vitamin D is necessary to meet vitamin D requirements. Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol are biologically inactive precursors of vitamin D and must be converted to biologically active forms in the liver and kidneys Figure 1. Indeed, following dietary intake or synthesis in the epidermis of skin after UVB exposure, both forms of vitamin D enter the circulation and are transported to the liver by the vitamin D-binding protein and to a lesser extent by albumin. In hepatocytes liver cells , vitamin D is hydroxylated to form hydroxyvitamin D calcidiol; calcifediol.
With so much talk about seeking shade and wearing SPF — even on cloudy days and in winter — it can be hard to believe that exposure to the sun, in small doses, can be beneficial. Sunbathing, which is the act of sitting or lying in the sun, sometimes with the intent to tan, may have some health benefits if done properly. The risks of too much sun exposure are well-documented.
If you're like most kids, you've probably heard at least one parent say, "Don't forget to take your vitamin! Vitamins and minerals are substances that are found in foods we eat. Your body needs them to work properly, so you grow and develop just like you should. When it comes to vitamins, each one has a special role to play.
For the ancient Greeks and Romans, Apollo was the god of medicine and healing as well as of sun and light—but Apollo could bring sickness as well as cure. Most public health messages of the past century have focused on the hazards of too much sun exposure. Sunburn is caused by too much UVB radiation; this form also leads to direct DNA damage and promotes various skin cancers.
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