File Name: beyond big and little the four c model of creativity .zip
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In the 21st-century postmodernism era, which represents diversity and relativity, one of the most essential elements in the field of education is to strengthen individual human values. Accordingly, we must focus on developing capacity in order to adapt to change. It is clear that the medical field maximizes the need for new judgments to solve life-related problems constantly, and this problem-solving capacity is an essential skill for a physician.
Problem-solving capacity can be achieved simultaneously with creativity to apply them in an appropriate manner based on standardized expertise and well-trained skills. Creativity is also a key element that medical education is currently pursuing. Many studies on creativity have resulted in confusion and misunderstandings on the concept of creativity due to similar terms and varied definitions, such as creation, innovation, etc.
In this study, we attempt to identify the importance of creativity in medical education by comparing and organizing concepts related to creative capacity.
Medical education is a field where the coldest reason meets the hottest emotion, reality and context are more intertwined than in any other discipline, and it requires constant attention to those who suffer sober judgment and patient care [ 1 ].
In the medical field in particular, an emergency situation can develop suddenly and problem-solving ability to apply expertise in such situations without apprehension is one of the most important attributes of doctors. This problem-solving ability is based on standardized expertise and skillful learning, and creativity can be applied at the same time. In this context, the concepts related to creative competencies will be compared and organized to identify its importance in medical education.
The etymology of creativity originated in ancient Greece, and its definitions are so diverse that discussions continue to this day.
The definition of creativity will go on constantly, and because of this imperfection, we will know more about creativity. This triggered vast research and definitions on the issue. In particular, Rhodes [ 6 ], who analyzed the work of many scholars on creativity, rather than defining creativity as a single concept, argued that people, processes, environments, and products overlap each other.
It is more productive to define it as working. To summarize the subject of creativity according to the researcher's point of view Fig. Since Guilford, this perspective has also defined creativity, focusing on the characteristics and dispositions of creative people. Another position that emphasizes creativity describes it as a psychological, social, and cultural environment that operates in the environment surrounding human beings.
In other words, the environment is something that allows creativity to occur [ 9 ]. This view has recently evolved into a pluralistic view in which the four elements of creativity interact. Csikszentmihalyi [ 11 ] also defined creativity as a field of cultures, bringers of newness, and experts who recognize newness in the environment surrounding individual creative achievement. From the perspective of emphasizing creative products, it focuses on creativity as a result of original thinking or creativity.
Creative output includes both the visible and invisible aspects. This model is categorized into Big-C and little-c by adding mini-c and pro-c. Big-C suggests genius creativity, such as the likes of Mozart, Einstein, Armstrong, etc.
While pro-c is not a genius, but a professional level of creativity, little-c refers to creativity expressed in day-to-day life, and mini-c refers to creative ideas inherent in everyone [ 12 , 13 ]. The volume of studies on creativity in Korean education was insignificant until , and its number has increased since the s. However, in the study of creative education, conceptual studies on creativity have been scarce, and since the emergence of creativity and personality capabilities in the revised curriculum, the study of creative education commenced.
Early creativity focuses on the concept of big creativity that develops something new, but recent research on creativity focuses on small creativity [ 14 ]. Creation, on the other hand, places a greater emphasis on the end result or output of all these activities, and creation is considered an outcome of creativity.
In Greek, there is a poiein , which means make, and is applied to poiethes , and only the poet is recognized as the maker of something. By the 19th century, it was limited to the arts field and applied to poets and artists [ 15 ]. Creativity has since been defined to suggest that artists create something new, mainly in art-related activities. Creation is thus used to highlight the process and results of creating something in the absence of experts in the field.
Creativity is recognized as a norm in education, and it is a concept that is appropriate not only for education but also for all academic fields and human activities such as literature, art, science and technology [ 16 ].
Specifically, activities that are not socially normative or inappropriate are not considered creative. There are some misconceptions about creativity that remind us of new, extraordinary, unusual, and imaginative words [ 17 ]. Gogh's ear cut. Creativity is based on a high intellectual ability, original thinking, independent judgment, and open thinking.
A five-year-old who is not aware of social knowledge and norms depicts a square cow, a neckless mom, and a dad [ 1 ]. Knowing the old, adding the new, and having a morally reasonable good value is creativity. It is not known that a child who knows nothing draws a square-necked cow, not so creative, and unrestricted illusions and deviations are not called creativity [ 18 ].
On the contrary, children's expressions are considered to be of value only if they fit the established standards, adequacy, truth, and moral right [ 19 ]. Creativity is therefore basically an integrated capacity that adds new, good value in addition to standardized knowledge.
Elements that define creativity are shown in Fig. Elements defining creativity. One of the most important aspects of creative education in tertiary institutions is the full acquisition of standardized knowledge in the field of study. If you play an entirely new piece outside the scope of the song, it can be defined as an activity beyond creativity.
Creativity is therefore not limited to any particular field of study but is a factor that must be pursued in all disciplines, beginning with day-to-day life. In recent years, with the introduction of competency-based and outcome-based curricula, attempts for qualitative growth have become more active, especially with the Korean Institute of Medical Education and Evaluation KIMEE. The key to this new assessment standard is the shift from traditional quantitative assessments to qualitative assessments that emphasize university autonomy.
The necessary and sufficient requirement for a qualitative assessment is the fulfillment of a quantification. The launch of qualitative evaluation through ASK also presupposes that medical education in Korea has already met a certain standardization and quantitative level. Therefore, it is time to be creative in the field of medical education. First of all, creative individuality needs to work at the university level.
Rather than countering the entire medical education flow or creating an entirely new form, it should reflect the changes in individual schools and communities on a standardized basis to form a unique culture of the university.
However, it is difficult to accept the demand for new changes in medical education as another process of uniformity. Instead of eliminating the existing standards, creativity should combine new educational goals and ideas with old values, especially in the field of medical education. In modern times, the pattern of disease has changed, with new symptoms and diseases emerging, and it has become common to treat patients of various nationalities.
Therefore, medical education should once again verify the basics and progress of education that reflects the diversity of the community and students, and at the same time develop the ability of graduates to properly solve problems in various situations in the medical field.
Not surprisingly, it is not a threat to the medical field, but it is only natural to have standardized basic knowledge. It is not possible to respond to the fast-changing modern medical field with average standardized capacity. In addition, human capacity is multidimensional, and an educational environment in which one can fully experience and be sure of the ability to be used in different contexts is important. While the primary objective of medical students is to become doctors, ultimately every student may have a different goal.
Therefore, in order to realize student-centric medical education, a curriculum that takes into consideration changing times and students' individual competencies should be prepared. There are also concerns that medical education should be excluded from creative capacity, as the various definitions of creativity seem to involve the risk of considering doctors as creative.
But creativity does not just mean something completely new, something completely special, as discussed earlier. Creativity is an ability that can be exercised when there is sufficient expertise in the field of study. Creative capacity is defined as the ability of a doctor with sufficient standardized knowledge and competence to adapt to a situation based on basic expertise. This is the reason why creative capacity should be viewed anew in the field of medical education.
We must go one step further for new growth. Conflicts of interest. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. Author contributions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Yeungnam Univ J Med. Published online Mar 9. Yura Kim and Young Hwan Lee. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Abstract In the 21st-century postmodernism era, which represents diversity and relativity, one of the most essential elements in the field of education is to strengthen individual human values. Keywords: Creative thinking, Creativity, Medical education, Problem-solving.
Introduction Medical education is a field where the coldest reason meets the hottest emotion, reality and context are more intertwined than in any other discipline, and it requires constant attention to those who suffer sober judgment and patient care [ 1 ]. Table 1. Open in a separate window. Definition and properties of creativity The etymology of creativity originated in ancient Greece, and its definitions are so diverse that discussions continue to this day.
The importance of creativity Creativity is recognized as a norm in education, and it is a concept that is appropriate not only for education but also for all academic fields and human activities such as literature, art, science and technology [ 16 ]. Conclusion There are also concerns that medical education should be excluded from creative capacity, as the various definitions of creativity seem to involve the risk of considering doctors as creative.
Footnotes Conflicts of interest No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. References 1. Lee YH. Reflections and tasks on our medical education. Healthc Policy Forum.
Med Educ. Baek SH. Future of medical education. Korean Med Educ Rev. Torrance EP. The millennium: a time for looking forward and looking backward.
Revealing Creativity pp Cite as. Creativity and culture within educational settings constitute changing domains of knowledge reflected in new terminology and creative constructs. The context-setting question for this chapter is, What definitions and theories advance knowledge, practice, and action that potentially allow creativity under constraint to be recovered and fostered with pedagogic guidance? Foregrounding the definitions of salient concepts is an explanation of the Four C Model of Creativity and its popularity in the literature and role in the present inquiry. Methods used for finding topical literature are covered in Chap. Definitions of specialized terms, operationalized in relation to the inquiry that unfolds in this book, are discussed, complete with context and source citation.
Mini-c represents the initial, creative interpretations that all creators have and which later manifest into recognizable creations. Little C: creative actions in which the non-expert may participate in each day. This level of creativity illustrates creative potential as widely distributed. Pro-c: represents developmental and effortful progression beyond little-c that has not yet attained Big-C status. Anyone who attains professional-level expertise in creative fields will reach Pro-c.
PDF | Most investigations of creativity tend to take one of two directions: everyday creativity (also called "little-c"), which can be found in nearly.
James C. Kaufman 71 Estimated H-index: View Paper. Add to Collection.
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In the 21st-century postmodernism era, which represents diversity and relativity, one of the most essential elements in the field of education is to strengthen individual human values.Leonel T. 18.06.2021 at 12:09
The current literature describes creativity as a domain-specific phenomenon.