File Name: modernization theory and the sociological study of development .zip
Sociology of Development 1 March ; 1 1 : 20— This line of argument ushered the rising consensus across the social sciences that the prime causal role belongs to institutions. However, the empirical literature that has followed from this consensus has been marred by a lack of proper definition of the concept and a tendency to use nations as units of analysis, neglecting their internal complexity.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or ' traditional ' to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber — , which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons — The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have been. Modernization theory was a dominant paradigm in the social sciences in the s and s, then went into a deep eclipse.
Modernization , in sociology, the transformation from a traditional, rural, agrarian society to a secular , urban, industrial society. Modern society is industrial society. To modernize a society is, first of all, to industrialize it. Historically, the rise of modern society has been inextricably linked with the emergence of industrial society. All the features that are associated with modernity can be shown to be related to the set of changes that, some years ago, brought into being the industrial type of society.
Modernization Theory and the Sociological Study of Development*. By Henry Bernstein†. SUMMARY. The focus of this article is methodological and.
The events leading up to the Second World War and the war itself had a profound impact on political and economic structures. The main impact was the emergence of a bi-polar world order, with the rise of a communist power, the USSR, on the one side and the United States as leader of the liberal capitalist system on the other. The US had emerged from the war as the strongest economy, enjoying rapid growth and capital accumulation and saw itself as leader of the emerging monetary and economic system in the capitalist world. A major early objective of the US was to assist Europe's recovery and lay the foundations of a new economic and political order, while containing the spread of communism in Western Europe. It was felt that institutions were needed that were able to create functioning, liberal market economies and order the economic, social, and political development in a post-war world.
Development, as an ideology and practice, has been a matter of much contestation since its inception at the enlightened period. The way development has been understood, explained and practiced has undergone various experiments and directions over the time. Yet, what development is theoretically and what it should be in practice remains as contested and vague. This article is an attempt to examine the trajectory of development from its origin in the classical modernization to the more contemporary neo-liberal and post-development discourses. It is argued that the way development has been propagated by the modernists as economic growth and positive change has been vehemently challenged by the post-modernists on the ground that development is not only hegemonic, authoritative and dependency creating mechanism that routinely fails and but also produces unintended consequences on the lives of the people. Thus, there has been a growing realization that development needs to be rethought in a way that would promote an alternative development or even an alternative to development. Such a shift in perspectives and continuing deliberations on development has given rise to the question whether development has reached an impasse which needs to be pushed forward.
Modernisation Theory. Historical Context s and 50s. By the end of WW2 it had become clear that despite exposure to Capitalism many of the countries of the South had failed to develop. In this context, in the late s, Modernisation Theory was developed.
This article examines the link between economic development and democracy. Drawing on modernization theory, it considers whether democracy is more likely to emerge in a country that modernizes economically. After discussing various criticisms against modernization theory, the article reviews statistical evidence to determine whether economic modernization gives rise to democracy. It argues that the correlation between economic development and democracy stems from the survival of democracy and that a poor authoritarian regime is not likely to turn into a democracy even if it receives economic assistance, either in the form of foreign aid or access to markets through trade. The article highlights the correlation between economic level and survival, rather than between economic growth and survival, noting that economic growth can be helpful only if it is sustained. Keywords: economic development , democracy , modernization theory , economic assistance , foreign aid , trade , economic level , economic growth.
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