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Mutation in the DNA of a body cell of a multicellular organism somatic mutation may be transmitted to descendant cells by DNA replication and hence result in a sector or patch of cells having abnormal function, an example being cancer. Mutations in egg or sperm cells germinal mutations may result in an individual offspring all of whose cells carry the mutation, which often confers some serious malfunction, as in the case of a human genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis. Mutations result either from accidents during the normal chemical transactions of DNA, often during replication, or from exposure to high-energy electromagnetic radiation e. Because mutations are random changes, they are expected to be mostly deleterious , but some may be beneficial in certain environments. In general, mutation is the main source of genetic variation , which is the raw material for evolution by natural selection. An individual offspring inherits mutations only when mutations are present in parental egg or sperm cells germinal mutations. Mutations in DNA occur for different reasons.
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Genetic variation is a measure of the variation that exists in the genetic makeup of individuals within population. Genetic variation is a measure of the genetic differences that exist within a population. The genetic variation of an entire species is often called genetic diversity. Genetic variations are the differences in DNA segments or genes between individuals and each variation of a gene is called an allele. For example, a population with many different alleles at a single chromosome locus has a high amount of genetic variation.
Mutations are abnormal changes in the DNA of a gene. The building blocks of DNA are called bases. The sequence of the bases determines the gene and its function. Mutations involve changes in the arrangement of the bases that make up a gene. Even a change in just one base among the thousands of bases that make up a gene can have a major effect. A gene mutation can affect the cell in many ways. Some mutations stop a protein from being made at all.
Mutants: On Genetic Variety and the Human Body. By Armand Marie Leroi. New York: Viking, Pp. $ Author information Copyright and License.
Armand Leroi. NY: Viking, Hardcover Armand Leroi's Mutants surveys genetic mutations in human embryonic development and their effects on the human form. As a scientist trained in genetics and developmental biology, Leroi's book almost exclusively examines disability through medical discourse.
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Genes are the building blocks of heredity. They are passed from parent to child. They hold DNA, the instructions for making proteins. Proteins do most of the work in cells. They move molecules from one place to another, build structures, break down toxins, and do many other maintenance jobs. Sometimes there is a mutation, a change in a gene or genes. The mutation changes the gene's instructions for making a protein, so the protein does not work properly or is missing entirely.
A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people. Mutations range in size; they can affect anywhere from a single DNA building block base pair to a large segment of a chromosome that includes multiple genes. When an egg and a sperm cell unite, the resulting fertilized egg cell receives DNA from both parents. If this DNA has a mutation, the child that grows from the fertilized egg will have the mutation in each of his or her cells.
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drugtruthaustralia.org: Mutants: On Genetic Variety and the Human Body (): Leroi, Armand Marie: Books.