File Name: the properties of gases and liquids .zip
The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.
Solids and liquids are collectively called condensed phases because their particles are in virtual contact. The two states share little else, however. In the solid state, the individual particles of a substance are in fixed positions with respect to each other because there is not enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular interactions between the particles.
As a result, solids have a definite shape and volume. Most solids are hard, but some like waxes are relatively soft.
Many solids composed of ions can also be quite brittle. Solids usually have their constituent particles arranged in a regular, three-dimensional array of alternating positive and negative ions called a crystal.
Glass is one example of an amorphous solid. If the particles of a substance have enough energy to partially overcome intermolecular interactions, then the particles can move about each other while remaining in contact.
This describes the liquid state. In a liquid, the particles are still in close contact, so liquids have a definite volume. However, because the particles can move about each other rather freely, a liquid has no definite shape and takes a shape dictated by its container.
If the particles of a substance have enough energy to completely overcome intermolecular interactions, then the particles can separate from each other and move about randomly in space.
Like liquids, gases have no definite shape, but unlike solids and liquids, gases have no definite volume either. The change from solid to liquid usually does not significantly change the volume of a substance. However, the change from a liquid to a gas significantly increases the volume of a substance, by a factor of 1, or more. Earth is the only known body in our solar system that has liquid water existing freely on its surface; life on Earth would not be possible without the presence of liquid water.
Water has several properties that make it a unique substance among substances. It is an excellent solvent; it dissolves many other substances and allows those substances to react when in solution. In fact, water is sometimes called the universal solvent because of this ability. Though a liquid at normal temperatures, water molecules experience a relatively strong intermolecular interaction that allows them to maintain the liquid phase at higher temperatures than expected.
Unlike most substances, the solid form of water is less dense than its liquid form, which allows ice to float on water. In colder weather, lakes and rivers freeze from the top, allowing animals and plants to continue to live underneath. Water also requires an unusually large amount of energy to change temperature.
Thus, water changes its temperature slowly as heat is added or removed. This has a major impact on weather, as storm systems like hurricanes can be impacted by the amount of heat that ocean water can store.
Learning Objectives Describe the solid and liquid phases. Solids In the solid state, the individual particles of a substance are in fixed positions with respect to each other because there is not enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular interactions between the particles. Some large crystals look the way they do because of the regular arrangement of atoms ions in their crystal structure. Source: Wikipedia. Liquids If the particles of a substance have enough energy to partially overcome intermolecular interactions, then the particles can move about each other while remaining in contact.
Gases If the particles of a substance have enough energy to completely overcome intermolecular interactions, then the particles can separate from each other and move about randomly in space. A solid has definite volume and shape, a liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape, and a gas has neither a definite volume nor shape. This state has a definite volume. This state has no definite shape. This state allows the individual particles to move about while remaining in contact. Solution This statement describes either the liquid state or the solid state.
This statement describes either the liquid state or the gas state. This statement describes the liquid state. This state has individual particles in a fixed position with regard to each other. This state has individual particles far apart from each other in space. This state has indefinite shape. Answer a solid Answer b gas Answer c liquid or gas. Looking Closer: Water, the Most Important Liquid Earth is the only known body in our solar system that has liquid water existing freely on its surface; life on Earth would not be possible without the presence of liquid water.
Key Takeaway Solids and liquids are phases that have their own unique properties.
Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure. The obvious way to turn a gas into a liquid is to cool it to a temperature below its boiling point. There is another way of condensing a gas to form a liquid, however, which involves raising the pressure on the gas. Liquids boil at the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the pressure on the liquid from its surroundings. Raising the pressure on a gas therefore effectively increases the boiling point of the liquid. Suppose that we have water vapor or steam in a closed container at o C and 1 atm.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a nearly constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of the four fundamental states of matter the others being solid , gas , and plasma , and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed shape. A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds.
Like the particles of a solid, particles in a liquid are subject to intermolecular attraction; however, liquid particles have more space between them, so they are not fixed in position. The attraction between the particles in a liquid keeps the volume of the liquid constant. The movement of the particles causes the liquid to be variable in shape. Liquids will flow and fill the lowest portion of a container, taking on the shape of the container but not changing in volume. The limited amount of space between particles means that liquids have only very limited compressibility.
Gases have three characteristic properties: 1 they are easy to compress, 2 they expand to fill their containers, and 3 they occupy far more space than the liquids or solids from which they form. An internal combustion engine provides a good example of the ease with which gases can be compressed. In a typical four-stroke engine, the piston is first pulled out of the cylinder to create a partial vacuum, which draws a mixture of gasoline vapor and air into the cylinder see figure below. The ratio of the volume of the gas in the cylinder after the first stroke to its volume after the second stroke is the compression ratio of the engine. Modern cars run at compression ratios of about , which means the gasoline-air mixture in the cylinder is compressed by a factor of nine in the second stroke.
Liquid , in physics , one of the three principal states of matter, intermediate between gas and crystalline solid. The most obvious physical properties of a liquid are its retention of volume and its conformation to the shape of its container. When a liquid substance is poured into a vessel, it takes the shape of the vessel, and, as long as the substance stays in the liquid state, it will remain inside the vessel.
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