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Health And Community Design The Impact Of The Built Environment On Physical Activity Pdf

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Frank, Peter O. Engelke, and Thomas L. Schmid Island Press, , pp.

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Regional Planning Agencies influence the health of their communities. This community-of-practice website builds on a series of calls and workshops and provides resources to help Regional Planning Agencies improve public health. Chan School of Public Health on this project. This section includes literature reviews and citations that highlights the relationship between transportation and health.

While these concepts were developed specifically for transit-orientated development, it also applies to public transit infrastructure as well. Transportation infrastructure can impact daily life that can influence lifelong health, such as access to healthy foods and affordable housing options. A recent study by Lee et al. In recent years, research has attempted to address this issue by working to understand the built environment and its connection to active transport, defined as walking, biking, and public transportation which typically requires some walking or biking.

Supported by concepts from the field of transportation planning, land use patterns shape the proximity of destinations and transportation systems connect destinations, which together determine the feasibility of walking, cycling, or mass transit use. Neighborhoods that have higher population densities, access to destinations, more grid-like street patterns, and access to high quality bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure are positively associated with physical activity.

Additionally, several studies show that walking to and from transit help people meet physical activity recommendations Besser and Dannenberg ; Freeland et al. In sum, there is convincing evidence that the built environment is associated with physical activity and active transport, although it is important to note that most studies are cross-sectional and observational Ewing and Cervero ; Freeman et al.

Well-lit and well-maintained walkable spaces with good visibility and access to shops, parks, and other amenities have been shown to reduce rates of crime and fear of crime Foster, Giles-Corti, and Knuiman ; Hedayati Marzbali et al. Still, one concern of TOD is the fear that crime rates will increase because of the perception that criminals travel on public transit Paulsen ; Billings, Leland, and Swindell However, actual crime levels at transit stations and stops vary by the type of transit.

Serious crime such as assault and robbery are generally low in train stations—with minor crimes such as pick-pocketing slightly elevated—while bus stops tend to have higher rates of crime, but the majority of it is concentrated at a small percentage of stops Paulsen Moreover, numerous studies show that crime is not necessarily associated with transit stations as much as with the design and layout of adjacent neighborhoods, as well as the types of uses surrounding transit stations Lipton et al.

In particular, areas that feature alcohol outlets e. This is a factor linked to future employment and income potential. Childhood health problems often follow into adulthood and may result in reduced earnings and ability to work fewer hours Conroy, Sandel, and Zuckerman ; Duncan, Ziol-Guest, and Kalil Socioeconomic status is the result of multiple variables such as educational level, occupation and income. Higher income is known to lead to better health outcomes, and there is evidence of increased risks for mortality, morbidity, and unhealthy behaviors for those with lower incomes Lindahl ; Rehkopf et al.

In addition, there is a higher prevalence of obesity and type II diabetes among groups with the lowest levels of income and education and in the most deprived areas Drewnowski As a strategy for developing compact residential and commercial areas in places that are accessible by public transit, TOD holds great potential for supporting existing employment centers and spurring new economic development.

Although recent decades have seen a decentralization of jobs from traditional central business districts, nearly a quarter of existing jobs in regions served by transit are located within a half-mile of transit stations Center for Transit-Oriented Development Social isolation, for example, can lead to greater levels of stress, which has well-documented health effects, as well as many other negative health impacts including increased risk of heart disease, mental health problems, and even death Berkman and Kawachi ; Kawachi and Kennedy Social cohesion, which describes the extent of connectedness and solidarity of a community, and social support are associated with positive health outcomes.

Communities with greater levels of social cohesion—often characterized by high levels of trust and respect, participation in community activities and public affairs, and increased participation in community groups—have better health outcomes than those with low levels Kawachi and Kennedy ; Marmot and Wilkinson ; Sampson This is true on an individual level as well.

Those with rich social environments—who have more friends and social interactions, hold a greater level of trust in their neighbors, and are part of a more tightly knit community—have access to a greater network of social resources which in turn help them stay healthier S. Cohen and Wills These social resources can manifest as emotional support in difficult times, material support such as a ride to work when the family car breaks down, or simply through health-promoting information shared amongst neighbors.

Access to social support such as this is associated with protective health effects including improved mental health outcomes, reduced stress, better cardiovascular health, better immune system functioning and more Berkman and Kawachi ; Uchino, Cacioppo, and Kiecolt-Glaser Community public space may play an important role.

In fact, neighborhoods with more public space also tend to be safer and the residents of those neighborhoods that are more walkable are more likely to report knowing their neighbors, trusting others, and being involved in social and civic events Richard et al.

Recent studies have found that green spaces, such as parks, trails, and other open spaces, improve individual health and the community-social environment Weich et al. Access to parks, open space, and greenery may protect against poor mental health outcomes Parra et al. Access to green space in particular may also provide opportunities for physical activity or provide members of a community with sanctuary from stress Stigsdotter et al.

Further research suggests that the presence of trees themselves, in addition to other vegetation, may also promote community health. Trees and other vegetation remove air pollutants and promote cleaner and more breathable air Jim and Chen By providing shade for streets and buildings, for example, trees shade their surrounding environments thereby perhaps reducing the presence of heat islands, UV exposure and skin cancer risk Grant, Heisler, and Gao ; Stanton et al.

Finally, trees more so than bushes or shrubs may also play an important role in promoting positive mental health outcomes and positive social behavior Taylor, Kuo, and Sullivan and have even been linked to reductions in crime Kuo and Sullivan New commercial and residential developments, especially those that involve previously vacant land or buildings, generate new trips by motorists, pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users.

With the addition of new trips, there is potential for an increase in the number of traffic-related crashes that occur on the surrounding transportation system. Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for more than 30, fatalities each year in the United States National Center for Environmental Health Automobile collisions are one of the leading causes of death among people 34 years old and younger, and account for 3.

Motor vehicle crashes impact pedestrians and bicyclists as well as motorists. In , cyclists and 4, pedestrians were killed in traffic crashes in the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The impact of crashes with pedestrians and bicyclists has more potential to lead to severe injury or fatality. As an example, a pedestrian hit at 35 mph is nearly three times more likely to die than one hit at 25 mph Tefft Integrated land use and transportation strategies can be used to reduce reliance on the automobile and its related effects like crashes, while creating new biking and walking facilities.

One particular expression of these integrated investments is TOD. Transit use tends to be between two to five times higher among those who live and work in the TOD as compared to others traveling in the same region Arrington and Cervero As a result, TOD often results in fewer vehicle trips that would be estimated using standard trip generation procedures e. Furthermore, land use and transportation investments like TOD that support public transit have the potential to reduce injury and death from transportation-related crashes through three means: 1.

Changing the mode of travel from automobile to another that carries a lower risk of injury. Changing the potential risk of vehicular collision for other vehicles and pedestrians. There is an extensive body of literature linking vehicular air pollution to mortality and hospitalizations due to asthma exacerbation, chronic lung disease, heart attacks, ischemic heart disease, and major cardiovascular disease US EPA and Abt Associates, Inc ; Roman et al.

The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to establish public health and welfare-based exposure standards for these six criteria air pollutants and States must develop plans to achieve these standards.

Because the developments assessed will likely to lead to changes in traffic patterns, below we detail four criteria air pollutants most closely linked to vehicular traffic pollution. Breathing ozone can irritate the respiratory system, reduce lung function, heighten sensitivity to allergens, and may contribute to premature death in people with heart and lung disease MassDEP a. In general, as concentrations of ground-level ozone increase, more people experience health symptoms, the effects become more serious, and hospital admissions for respiratory problems increase MassDEP a.

When ground-level ozone reaches unhealthy levels, children and people with asthma or other respiratory diseases are the group at highest risk. Particulate Matter Particulate matter PM air pollution comes mainly from automobiles and power plants, and has been linked to higher rates of mortality and coronary disease Dockery et al. Health effects include asthma exacerbation and difficult or painful breathing, especially in children and the elderly.

Cardiovascular disease events account for most of the excess mortality attributed to PM exposure. Additionally, epidemiologic evidence has accumulated for a relationship between acute PM and nonfatal cardiovascular events, including: hospital admissions Goldberg et al. Dominici et al. Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide CO is a poisonous gas that forms from incomplete combustion. CO is invisible and has no odor, but it can be dangerous to health and potentially fatal in high concentrations.

Motor vehicle exhaust contributes roughly 60 percent of all carbon monoxide emissions nationwide, and up to 95 percent in cities. Air concentrations of CO can be particularly high in areas with heavy traffic congestion. People who suffer from cardiovascular diseases are at risk of experiencing chest pain and other cardiovascular symptoms if exposed to carbon monoxide. People with cardiovascular and respiratory problems such as cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, congestive heart failure and anemia also are at greater risk from carbon monoxide exposure, as are young infants and developing fetuses MassDEP a.

Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen dioxide NO2 is one of a group of highly reactive gases containing nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts known collectively as oxides of nitrogen, or NOx. Many of these gases are colorless and odorless. But one, nitrogen dioxide NO2 , often is seen along with particle pollution as a reddish-brown layer in the air over urban areas.

Primary sources of NOx emissions include motor vehicles, electric utilities and other industrial, commercial and residential sources that burn fuels. Nitrogen dioxide irritates the nose and throat, especially in people with asthma, and appears to increase susceptibility to respiratory infections. While there is no formal definition of the term "brownfields" in Massachusetts, brownfields are typically abandoned or for sale or lease and have been used for commercial or industrial purposes.

Brownfields may have been reported to the MassDEP because contamination has been found or they may not have been assessed due to fear of unknown contamination conditions MassDEP c. Exposure to environmental contamination can have numerous health effects depending on the specifics of the prior land use and the materials remaining on the site that might be harmful to human health.

State brownfields program incentives are available to buyers, and sometimes sellers, of contaminated property provided there is a commitment to cleanup during redevelopment. State incentives can help parties identify risk, limit liability, and fund the cleanup of brownfields sites enabling their reuse for industry, housing and other purposes. Parties who conduct site assessment or cleanup at any property in Massachusetts must do so under the state's cleanup law, Chapter 21E, and cleanup regulations, the Massachusetts Contingency Plan MCP.

Brownfields sites require the same level of investigation and remediation as any other site in the MCP system. However, the MCP process allows property owners to take planned future reuses into account when performing a cleanup. Transportation in the context of this HIA focuses on issues related to the school commute of students.

The school commute encompasses the trips and travel modes—car, bus, walking, bicycling—used to transport students to and from a school location. For this HIA, the school commute focuses on those traveling to and from public schools. Many factors such as distance from home to school, school policies e. Distance has been shown to be a strong predictor for active transport. For example, it has been found that students who live a half-mile or less from their school are more likely to walk or bike than those who live farther away Timperio et al.

The mode of transportation that students use has implications for their health. It affects their potential exposure for vehicular crashes and exposure to environmental factors such as air pollution as well as health risk behaviors. School Commute and Physical Activity : In , nearly half of students aged in the US walked or biked to school. By , only slightly more than one in ten commuted by foot or bicycle M.

Lee, Orenstein, and Richardson a; Bungum et al. Lee, Orenstein, and Richardson b.

Health and Community Design: The Impact of the Built Environment on Physical Activity

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Physical Activity Environments. Recommendation 1: Communities, transportation officials, community planners, health professionals, and governments should make promotion of physical activity a priority by substantially increasing access to places and opportunities for such activity 1. Strategy Enhance the physical and built environment. Communities, organizations, community planners, and public health professionals should encourage physical activity by enhancing the physical and built environment, rethinking community design, and ensuring access to places for such activity. Strategy Provide and support community programs designed to increase physical activity.


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Health and Community Design: The Impact of the Built Environment on Physical Activity

COVID is a rapidly evolving situation. Visit www. The Community Preventive Services Task Force CPSTF recommends built environment strategies that combine one or more interventions to improve pedestrian or bicycle transportation systems with one or more land use and environmental design interventions to increase physical activity. Built environment interventions to increase physical activity create or modify environmental characteristics in a community to make physical activity easier or more accessible.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Many factors influence the rate at which an individual burns calories and the number of calories he or she consumes. Public policy plays a role: declines in the rates at which children walk to school and adults use public transportation, for example, have coincided with the obesity epidemic, and such trends in part reflect changes in zoning and land use, funding for public transportation, and other policies.

Contributors All authors contributed to the conception, writing, and revising of the article. Because few studies have investigated this relationship, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a workshop in May to help develop a scientific research agenda on these issues. This report describes the 37 questions in the resulting research agenda. The next steps are to define priorities and obtain resources. The proposed research will help identify the best practices for designing new communities and revitalizing old ones in ways that promote physical and mental health.

Have questions about your vision health? Our Eye Center has answers. Improving and enhancing the built environment of communities has the potential to significantly reduce automobile dependency, create public spaces that are attractive to pedestrians and cyclists, and improve physical activity and overall health of residents.

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 Если Стратмор не забил тревогу, то зачем тревожиться. - Да в шифровалке темно как в аду, черт тебя дери. - Может быть, Стратмор решил посмотреть на звезды. - Джабба, мне не до шуток. - Ну хорошо, - сказал он, приподнимаясь на локтях.

Чтобы развеять эти опасения, конгресс объявил, что, когда алгоритм будет создан, его передадут для ознакомления лучшим математикам мира, которые должны будут оценить его качество. Команда криптографов АНБ под руководством Стратмора без особого энтузиазма создала алгоритм, который окрестила Попрыгунчиком, и представила его в конгресс для одобрения. Зарубежные ученые-математики проверили Попрыгунчика и единодушно подтвердили его высокое качество. Они заявляли, что это сильный, чистый алгоритм, который может стать отличным стандартом шифрования. Но за три дня до голосования в конгрессе, который наверняка бы дал добро новому стандарту. молодой программист из лаборатории Белл по имени Грег Хейл потряс мир, заявив, что нашел черный ход, глубоко запрятанный в этом алгоритме.

Healthy Community Design

После истории с Попрыгунчиком всякий раз, когда Мидж казалось, что происходит что-то подозрительное, она сразу же превращалась из кокетки в дьявола, и, пока не выясняла все досконально, ничто не могло ее остановить. - Мидж, скорее всего это наши данные неточны, - решительно заявил Бринкерхофф.  - Ты только подумай: ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над одним-единственным файлом целых восемнадцать часов.

Это все равно что номерной почтовый ящик: пользователь получает и отправляет почту, не раскрывая ни своего имени, ни адреса. Компания получает электронные сообщения, адресованные на подставное имя, и пересылает их на настоящий адрес клиента. Компания связана обязательством ни при каких условиях не раскрывать подлинное имя или адрес пользователя. - Это не доказательство, - сказал Стратмор.  - Но кажется довольно подозрительным.

Иногда даже, если жертва внушительной комплекции, она не убивает вовсе. - У него было больное сердце, - сказал Фонтейн. Смит поднял брови. - Выходит, выбор оружия был идеальным. Сьюзан смотрела, как Танкадо повалился на бок и, наконец, на спину.

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 Коммандер, - сказала.  - Это еще не конец. Мы еще не проиграли.

Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению. Сьюзан закрыла глаза и начала молиться за Дэвида. Ее молитва была проста: она просила Бога защитить любимого человека. Не будучи религиозной, она не рассчитывала услышать ответ на свою молитву, но вдруг почувствовала внезапную вибрацию на груди и испуганно подскочила, однако тут же поняла: вибрация вовсе не была рукой Божьей - она исходила из кармана стратморовского пиджака. На своем Скайпейджере он установил режим вибрации без звонка, значит, кто-то прислал коммандеру сообщение.

 В качестве заложников? - холодно усмехнулся Стратмор.  - Грег, тебе придется придумать что-нибудь получше. Между шифровалкой и стоянкой для машин не менее дюжины вооруженных охранников.

Health and Community Design: The Impact of the Built Environment on Physical Activity

Всю ответственность я беру на. Быстрее. Хейл выслушал все это, не сдвинувшись с места и не веря своим ушам.

3 Comments

Yasmin L. 16.06.2021 at 04:54

Health and Community Design is a comprehensive examination of how the built environment encourages or discourages physical activity.

Llanque C. 18.06.2021 at 06:27

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Henriette C. 20.06.2021 at 10:23

Regional Planning Agencies influence the health of their communities.

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