File Name: schopenhauer on the vanity and suffering of life .zip
This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. It draws on the philosophical writings of Schopenhauer and Aristotle. It suggests that the modern preoccupation with optimism may be as extreme as the bleak pessimistic outlook favoured by Schopenhauer. The nature of pessimism is best illustrated by the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer. In On the Vanity of Existence , 1 he wrote:. We begin in the madness of carnal desire and the transport of voluptuousness, we end in the dissolution of all our parts and the musty stench of corpses.
And the road from one to the other too goes, in regard to our well-being and enjoyment of life, steadily downhill: happily dreaming childhood, exultant youth, toil-filled years of manhood, infirm and often wretched old age, the torment of the last illness and finally the throes of death - does it not look as if existence were an error the consequences of which gradually grow more and more manifest?
For Schopenhauer, suffering is the inescapable condition of life. The true cure of the sickness of life is the acceptance of annihilation. With this bleak worldview in mind, the need in most human beings for hope and optimism becomes comprehensible.
Thus, living involves fear that the intolerable might continue and hope that things may change for the better. Hope in this context seems laudable. Even though she does not explicitly raise the moral dimension to her critique - namely that even if positive psychology can be empirically shown to be beneficial, to make people happier for instance, is it morally right to instil hope in hopeless situations? And there are no easy answers. Both polarities, in my view, seem unhelpful. Declaration of interest None.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Psychiatr Bull v. Psychiatr Bull Femi Oyebode 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to Femi Oyebode moc. Femi Oyebode is professor of psychiatry at the University of Birmingham and a consultant psychiatrist at the National Centre for Mental Health, Birmingham.
Received Oct 16; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. Footnotes Declaration of interest None.
References 1. Schopenhauer A. Essays and Aphorisms trans. Hollingdale RJ. Penguin, McGuire-Snieckus R. Hope, optimism and delusion. Seligman MEP. Free Press, [ Google Scholar ]. Aristotle Ethics trans.
He is best known for his work The World as Will and Representation expanded in , which characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable noumenal will. Though his work failed to garner substantial attention during his lifetime, Schopenhauer had a posthumous impact across various disciplines, including philosophy , literature , and science. His writing on aesthetics , morality , and psychology have influenced many thinkers and artists. Neither of them was very religious;  both supported the French Revolution ,  and were republicans , cosmopolitans and Anglophiles. Adele , Arthur's only sibling was born on 12 July Heinrich gave his son a choice—he could stay at home and start preparations for university education, or he could travel with them and then continue his merchant education.
Arthur Schopenhauer was among the first 19 th century philosophers to contend that at its core, the universe is not a rational place. Inspired by Plato and Kant, both of whom regarded the world as being more amenable to reason, Schopenhauer developed their philosophies into an instinct-recognizing and ultimately ascetic outlook, emphasizing that in the face of a world filled with endless strife, we ought to minimize our natural desires for the sake of achieving a more tranquil frame of mind and a disposition towards universal beneficence. Often considered to be a thoroughgoing pessimist, Schopenhauer in fact advocated ways — via artistic, moral and ascetic forms of awareness — to overcome a frustration-filled and fundamentally painful human condition. Exactly a month younger than the English Romantic poet, Lord Byron — , who was born on January 22, , Arthur Schopenhauer came into the world on February 22, in Danzig [Gdansk, Poland] — a city that had a long history in international trade as a member of the Hanseatic League. In March , when Schopenhauer was five years old, his family moved to the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg after the formerly free city of Danzig was annexed by Prussia. Schopenhauer toured through Europe several times with his family as a youngster and young teenager, and lived in France —99 [ages ] and England [age 15], where he learned the languages of those countries. As he later reported, his experiences in France were among the happiest of his life.
The question of the meaning of life is one that interests philosophers and non-philosophers alike. The question itself is notoriously ambiguous and possibly vague. We may read our ancestors in such a way that warrants the claim that the meaning of life has been a human concern from the beginning. In the twentieth century, in the Continental tradition, Heidegger held that the meaning of life is to live authentically or alternatively to be a guardian of the earth. Sartre espoused the view that life is meaningless but urged us nonetheless to make a free choice that would give our lives meaning and responsibility. Camus also thought that life is absurd and meaningless.
Arthur Schopenhauer. The vanity of existence is revealed in the whole form existence assumes: in the infiniteness of time and space Every moment of our life belongs to the present only for a moment; then it belongs for ever to the past.
Time and that perishability of all things existing in time that time itself brings about is simply the form under which the will to live, which as thing in itself is imperishable, reveals to itself the vanity of its striving. Time is that by virtue of which everything becomes nothingness in our hands and loses all real value. We came from nothing after eons of time and will shortly return to nothing. Each moment of life is transitory and fleeting and quickly becomes the past—in other words, vanish into nothingness. The hourglass of our lives is slowly emptying.
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The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer — is well known for his pessimism. He did not believe in real happiness. In his view, the best a person can achieve is to reduce misery. At the end of his career, he wrote a book on how to live the most bearable life. This is a practical guide based on his personal experiences and illustrated by quotations from other thinkers subscribing to his views. In this paper, we summarize his recommendations and compare these with conditions for happiness as observed in present day empirical research.
This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. It draws on the philosophical writings of Schopenhauer and Aristotle. It suggests that the modern preoccupation with optimism may be as extreme as the bleak pessimistic outlook favoured by Schopenhauer. The nature of pessimism is best illustrated by the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer.
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On The Assertion Of The Will To Live. Chapter XLVI. On The Vanity And Suffering Of Life. drugtruthaustralia.orgcs Chapter XLVIII.Ananquel M. 19.06.2021 at 23:14
Below is a condensed version of it.