File Name: chemical thermodynamics and energetics class 12 notes .zip
Surroundings: Everything else in the universe except system is called surroundings. Open System: In a system, when there is exchange of energy and matter taking place with the surroundings, then it is called an open system.
For Example: Presence of reactants in an open beaker is an example of an open system. For example: The presence of reactants in a closed vessel made of conducting material. Isolated System: In a system, when no exchange of energy or matter takes place with the surroundings, is called isolated system.
For example: The presence of reactants in a thermoflask, or substance in an insulated closed vessel is an example of isolated system. Homogeneous System: A system is said to be homogeneous when all the constituents present is in the same phase and is uniform throughout the system. For example: A- mixture of two miscible liquids. Heterogeneous system: A mixture is said to be heterogeneous when it consists of two or more phases and the composition is not uniform.
For example: A mixture of insoluble solid in water. They are also known as state functions. Isothermal process: When the operation is carried out at constant temperature, the process is said to be isothermal. Adiabatic process: It is a process in which no transfer of heat between system and surroundings, takes place.
Isobaric process: When the process is carried out at constant pressure, it is said to be isobaric. Cyclic process: If a system undergoes a series of changes and finally returns to its initial state, it is said to be cyclic process. Reversible Process: When in a process, a change is brought in such a way that the process could, at any moment, be reversed by an infinitesimal change. The change r is called reversible. In thermodynamics, it is denoted by AM which may change, when — Heat passes into or out of the system — Work is done on or by the system — Matter enters or leaves the system.
Change in Internal Energy by Doing Work Let us bring the change in the internal energy by doing work. Let the initial state of the system is state A and Temp. It can be measured in terms of temperature difference. When change of state is done both by doing work and transfer of heat.
It states that, energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. The energy of an isolated system is constant. It is equal to the sum of internal energy and pressure-volume work. For endothermic reaction System absorbs energy from the Surroundings. For example: Mass, volume, enthalpy etc.
For example: temperature, density, pressure etc. C is directly proportional to the amount of substance. Working with calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of a strong vessel called bomb which can withstand very high pressure. It is surrounded by a water bath to ensure that no heat is lost to the surroundings. Procedure: A known mass of the combustible substance is burnt in the pressure of pure dioxygen in the steel bomb. Heat evolved during the reaction is transferred to the water and its temperature is monitored.
Enthalpy of vaporisation: It is defined as the heat energy or change in enthalpy when one mole of a liquid at its boiling point changes to gaseous state. Enthalpy of Sublimation: Enthalpy of sublimation is defined as the change in heat energy or change in enthalpy when one mole of solid directly changes into gaseous state at a temperature below its melting point.
Enthalpy of Combustion: It is defined as the heat energy or change in enthalpy that accompanies the combustion of 1 mole of a substance in excess of air or oxygen. Conventions regarding thermochemical equations 1.
The coefficients in a balanced thermochemical equation refer to the number of moles of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Thus, it can be calculated by following steps. The diagrams which show these steps is known as Born-Haber Cycle. Spontaneous process need not be instantaneous. Its actual speed can vary from very slow to quite fast.
A few examples of spontaneous process are: i Common salt dissolves in water of its own. Entropy of a substance is minimum in solid state while it is maximum in gaseous state. RD Sharma Class 12 Solutions. Watch Youtube Videos.
Thermodynamics The branch of science which deal with study of different forms of energy and the quantities relationship between them is known as Thermodynamics. When the study of thermodynamics is confined to chemical changes and chemical substances only, it is known as chemical thermodynamics. It is that branch of chemistry which deals with energy changes taking place in a reaction. Thermodynamics helps in a Determining feasibility of a particular process i. Some fundamental Definitions System : That part of the universe which is chosen for thermodynamics considerations is. Boundary : The imaginary line which separates the system from the surrounding is called boundary. Open system : A system is said to be an open systems if it can exchange both matter and energy with the surroundings.
Register Now. Hey there! We receieved your request. A system which can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings. A system which permits passage of energy but not mass, across its boundary. A system which can neither exchange energy nor matter with its surrounding. Part of the universe other than system, which can interact with it.
Studymaterial for the Chemical Thermodynamics And Energetic, Maharashtra Class science CHEMISTRY, Chemistry Part I. Q A thermodynamic process.
In science and engineering, Thermodynamics is being applied to a wide variety of topics, especially physical chemistry, mechanical engineering, and chemical engineering, and also in other complex fields such as meteorology. Firstly, everyone should know that Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin formulated a concise definition in of Thermodynamics which states, "Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces which were acting in between the contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency. The initial application of Thermodynamics on mechanical heat engines was quickly extended to the study of chemical reactions and chemical compounds.
Khan Academy is a c 3 nonprofit organization. Thus, the spontaneity of a chemical change can be predicted either by. E: Chemistry of the Environment Exercises , No other aids or documents are permitted. It is represented as the sum of work and heat done to the system.
Chemical reactions, such as those that occur when you light a match, involve changes in energy as well as matter. Societies at all levels of development could not function without the energy released by chemical reactions. We use this energy to produce electricity; to transport food, raw materials, manufactured goods; for industrial production; and to heat and power our homes. While these combustion reactions help us meet our essential energy needs. Chemical Energy stored by molecules can be released as heat during chemical reactions when a fuel like methane, cooking gas or coal burns in air.
Has only one state with minimum energy in the text in metal bar from hot end cold! In this case, there is no exchange of matter or energy between the system and the surroundings.
Plants such as planes, trucks and ships work on the basis of thermodynamics only! Second law Chemical thermodynamics: The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the state of entropy of the entire universe, as an isolated system, will always increase over time. While one container is filled with a liter of helium gas, the other is filled with a liter of neon gas. Browse videos, articles, and exercises by topic.
Intensive properties are properties that do not depend on the quantity of matter. Cover the book with protective material, such as plastic, old newspapers or magazines. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning.
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