File Name: beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human .zip
All mammals own two main forms of fat.
Promotion of brown adipose tissue BAT activity or browning of white adipose tissue has shown great potential as anti-obesity strategy in numerous preclinical models. The discovery of active BAT in humans and the recent advances in the understanding of human BAT biology and function have significantly propelled this field of research. Pharmacological stimulation of energy expenditure to counteract obesity has always been an intriguing therapeutic concept; with the identification of the specific molecular pathways of brown fat function, this idea has now become as realistic as ever. Two distinct strategies are currently being pursued; one is the activation of bone fide BAT, the other is the induction of BAT-like cells or beige adipocytes within white fat depots, a process called browning. Recent evidence suggests that both phenomena can occur in humans.
Brown adipose tissue: what have we learned since its recent identification in human adults. Brown adipose tissue, an essential organ for thermoregulation in small and hibernating mammals due to its mitochondrial uncoupling capacity, was until recently considered to be present in humans only in newborns. The identification of brown adipose tissue in adult humans since the development and use of positron emission tomography marked with fluorodeoxyglucose PET-FDG has raised a series of doubts and questions about its real importance in our metabolism. In this review, we will discuss what we have learnt since its identification in humans as well as both new and old concepts, some of which have been marginalized for decades, such as diet-induced thermogenesis. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. However, it has only been recognized as a mammal specific thermogenic organ, essential for mammalian thermoregulation, for less than half a century 2.
These two beiging triggers have been used interchangeably but whether these two stimuli may induce beiging differently at cellular and molecular levels remains unclear. Here, we found that cold-induced beige adipocyte formation requires Adrb 1, not Adrb3 , activation. In contrast, Adrb3 activation stimulates mature white adipocytes to convert into beige adipocytes. Necessity tests, using mature adipocyte-specific Prdm16 deletion strategies, demonstrated that adipocytes are required and are predominant source to generate Adrb3 -induced, but not cold-induced, beige adipocytes. Excess accumulation of a type of fat called white fat is associated with obesity and metabolic problems. White fat cells store energy. White fat tissue also contains some beige fat cells, which burn fats and sugars to produce heat.
A new hypothesis based on structural and molecular heterogeneity of thermogenic adipocytes suggests that regulated thermogenesis in mammalian adipose tissues involves two structural-functional levels. The first level comprises typical brown fat and beige adipocytes of subcutaneous white fat depots. Being a part of the functional thermoregulatory system, this level of heat production is controlled by the appropriate hypothalamic centers. The second level is represented by visceral beige adipocytes with a relatively low total thermogenic capacity which provide a fine local adjustment of thermal optima for cell renewal processes. This level is regulated mainly by the local auto- and paracrine mechanisms. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
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Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование. - Здравствуйте, шеф. - Думала, кое-кто помоложе? - засмеялся Стратмор.
Росио нигде не. Дверь, ведущая в ванную, закрыта. - Prostituiert? - Немец бросил боязливый взгляд на дверь в ванную. Он был крупнее, чем ожидал Беккер. Волосатая грудь начиналась сразу под тройным подбородком и выпячивалась ничуть не меньше, чем живот необъятного размера, на котором едва сходился пояс купального халата с фирменным знаком отеля. Беккер старался придать своему лицу как можно более угрожающее выражение. - Ваше имя.
- Стратмор помахал оружием и встал. - Нужно найти ключ Хейла. Сьюзан замолчала. Коммандер, как всегда, прав.
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