File Name: ancient indian history and civilization .zip
Our knowledge of the ancient world has been radically altered by impressive archaeological discoveries over the last two centuries. Yet, even during the nineteenth century British explorers and officials were curious about brick mounds dotting the landscape of northwest India, where Pakistan is today. A large one was located in a village named Harappa see Figure 3.
Indian History Chronology: Indian History is a topic of interest to many including foreigners because of the cultures and civilizations existed in this sub-continent. History of India can be studied under political, cultural, religious or economic heads. Take a Free Test. The following dynasties flourished one after the other during the Delhi Sultanate period. Mughals who ruled from to were known as Later Mughals.
For the purposes of this article, the term Ancient India refers to that period of Indian history which began in the early 3rd millennium BCE, when a literate, city-based culture first emerged, to the end of the brilliant Gupta dynasty, in CE. By this time all the essential foundations of Indian civilization had been laid down. As such, Ancient India plays a key role in world history. Its achievements can still be powerfully felt today, in a modern India and its growing influence around the world.
Further Study History map of the Indus Valley civilization. The detail of the Alexander Mosaic showing Alexander the Great. Urban civilization first appeared in ancient India with the Indus Valley civilization in the early third millennium BCE, in what is today Pakistan and north-west India.
This was contemporary with other early civilizations of the ancient world, in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, and is one of the earliest civilizations in world history. It is famous for its large and well-planned cities.
In the following thousand years, a people known as the Aryans, speaking an Indo-European language , moved into northern India from central Asia. They came into India as pastoral, semi-nomadic tribes led by warrior chieftains. Over time, they settled down as rulers over the native Dravidian populations they found there, and formed tribal kingdoms.
This period of ancient Indian history is known as the Vedic age , as it was depicted in the earliest Indian writings, called the Vedas. It is also the formative period in which most of the basic features of traditional Indian civilization were laid down. A page from the manuscript Seventy-two Specimens of Castes in India.
The tribal society of the early Aryans gave way to the more complex society of the Classic Age of Ancient India. This period saw the rebirth of urban civilization in the Indian subcontinent, and with it, a literate culture.
It was one of the most creative ages in the history of India, and saw the emergence of two new religions, Jainism and Buddhism. Painting of Indra on his elephant mount, Airavata. This period of ancient India ended with the rise of the first great imperial state in ancient India, the Mauryan empire , after BCE.
The Maurya empire was in effect an outgrowth of the kingdom of Magadha. Under a line of kings of the Nanda dynasty reigned c. He was a remarkable and attractive ruler: compassionate, tolerant, firm, seeking justice and well-being for all his subjects.
Outlying provinces fell away, and by the mid-2nd century BCE the empire had shrunk to its core areas. It was, however, one of the most formative eras of ancient Indian civilization. So far as society is concerned, the coming of Aryans into ancient India, and their establishing themselves as the dominant group, gave rise to the caste system. This divided Indian society into rigid layers, underpinned by religious rules.
Originally there were just four castes, the priestly caste, the warrior caste, the farmers and traders, and the menial workers. As early Aryan society evolved into the more settled and more urban society of ancient India, these caste divisions persisted. New religious movements, the Jains and Buddhists , rebelled against it, preaching that all men are equal. However, caste was never overthrown. As time went on, indeed, it became more complex, and more rigid.
It has endured right up to the present day. In the earliest times, many hunter-gatherer groups inhabited much of the Indian sub-continent. However, the economic history of ancient India is one of agricultural advance. The use of iron spread from the Middle East from around BCE, making farming more productive, and populations grew. At first, this occurred on the plains of northern India.
However, iron-age farming gradually spread throughout the entire subcontinent. The hunter-gatherers were squeezed more and more into the forests and hills of India, eventually to take up farming themselves and being incorporated into Aryan society as new castes. The spread of iron-age farming was a crucial development in the history of ancient India as it led to the rebirth of urban civilization in the subcontinent.
Cities grew up; trade expanded; metal currency appeared, and an alphabetical script came into use. The tribal chiefs of early Aryan society were the ancestors of the princes and kings we encounter in later Indian history. The re-emergence of cities enabled properly organized states to appear. The rise of the Mauryan empire to cover most of ancient India involved the creation of a provincial administration which spanned much of the subcontinent.
The empire was divided into provinces, and an empire-wide tax-gathering organization was developed. Also created was an extensive espionage system. A network of roads running from south and north and east to west was maintained. Mauryan power rested ultimately on its formidable army, which seems to have been one of the largest in the ancient world. As Mauryan power weakened, these provinces became powerful regional kingdoms, covering a territory far greater than the ancient Aryan homeland of northern India and reaching down into southern India.
In any case, the next period of ancient Indian history, the Vedic age, saw the rise of early Hinduism, from which all other Indian religious systems arose. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, with the Great Bath in the front. Reproduced under Creative Commons license 1. The Aryan belief-system revolved around a pantheon of gods and goddesses. Later, the idea of the material world being an illusion became widespread. Such ideas were emphasised more strongly in the new teachings of Jainism and Buddhism, which both also had their origins in ancient India, in the years around BCE.
He emphasised an aspect already present in early Hinduism, non-violence to all living things. He also promoted the renunciation of worldly desires and an ascetic way of life. He came to believe that extreme asceticism was not a fruitful basis for a spiritual life. However, like Jains, he believed that the release from worldly desires was the way to salvation. In daily life, Buddhists emphasised the importance of ethical behaviour. Both Buddhism and Jainism flourished under the Mauryan empire.
Some scholars believe that it was in this period, especially under Asoka , that Buddhism became established as a major religion within ancient India.
Strongly linked to these religious developments, ancient India produced a fantastically rich literature. In the centuries after coming into northern India, the Aryans developed a great abundance of poems, tales, hymns, spells and so on, in an oral tradition known as the Vedas. Another body of literature that was composed towards the end of the Vedic age were the Upanishads , a collection of works of prose and poetry which explore deep religious and philosophical concepts, including the idea that the material world is an illusion, and the implications of this idea for the individual soul.
The earliest Jain and Buddhist scriptures were in this form, setting out the sayings of their founders in a brief, pithy way. Alongside these arose a tradition of elaborate epic poetry. The most famous examples are the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
These retell famous incidents in semi-mythological history, far back in the Vedic age. As well as religious writings, ancient India produced works on mathematics, medicine, and politics. The Arthashastra of the famous statesman Kautilya anticipates Machiavelli by almost 2, years.
All these works were written in Sanskrit, the ancient language of the Aryans. One of the greatest linguists in world history flourished sometime in the following centuries. This was Panini. He set out highly logical rules of grammar, which formed the basis of classical Sanskrit.
His underlying idea was that words should express meaning as efficiently as possible — the brief sutras in ancient Indian scriptures embody this principle. Much Indian education came to be based on its principles, even if not in Sanskrit; they trained Indian scholars in a rigorous logic which acted as a major stimulus to intellectual thought and debate. Apart from figurines from the Indus Valley civilization, the earliest examples of the art of ancient India which have come down to us are from magnificent cave temples in central India.
The spread of such temples — either located in natural caves which have been shaped to create a religious space, or entirely carved from rock — was originally a Buddhist innovation, which Hindus later adopted. Here, stone carvings and painted frescoes dating from ancient times have come down to us, the earliest dating from the Mauryan empire, or just after. The most famous early cave-temples are found at Ellora, in central India. Another Buddhist innovation was the stupa , a dome-shaped monument in which religious relics were stored.
The earliest of these date from Mauryan times, with the Great Stupa at Sanchi being the most famous. Apart from cave temples, ancient Indian buildings — secular and religious — were largely made of wood and bricks. Apparently they incorporated rounded arches atop their windows and doors — in which case they preceded arched architecture in the West by several centuries.
In mathematics, the scholars of ancient India clearly understood the Pythagorean theorem, that the square of the hypotenuse the side opposite the right angle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
A medical treatise called the Sushruta Samhita 6th century BCE describes illnesses, medicinal plants, a detailed study on anatomy, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources.
Cataract surgery was known to ancient Indian physicians, and was performed with a specially designed curved needle to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision. A statue dedicated to Sushruta at the Patanjali Yogpeeth institute in Haridwar.
Reproduced under Creative Commons 3. The evolution of a religious culture in ancient India, out of which Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism emerged as three distinct religions, was a development of great importance in world history. Between them, these religions today have the allegiance of billions of people. Buddhism has spread far and wide outside the Indian subcontinent where, curiously, it has become a minority religion , and has had a deep impact upon societies in China, Japan, Korea , Tibet and South East Asia.
It is now spreading fast amongst peoples in the West, where by some counts it is the fastest growing religion.
The interaction between three rival but closely related faiths produced a rich and tolerant intellectual environment. This would give rise to achievements of world significance.
Indian developments in mathematics laid the foundation for modern Western mathematics, and therefore for modern Western science.
The Mauryan empire played a key role in the spread of Buddhism. The Indus Valley Civilization.
Women play a key role in strengthening the dynamism of human civilization. According to Altekar , p. Moreover these parameters have tended to create a major lacuna in our perception of the societal structure that had endeavored to shape gender roles and positions in ancient India. On the other hand Jainism and Buddhism also flourished in ancient India during the same period. Women were dignified with a respectable status in early Vedic civilization. They were also honored by their participation in all the socio-cultural activities of early Indian civilization. As explained in Devi and Subrahmanyam , the value of women and the respect shown towards them was not only limited to the idea of mistress of the household, rather, women demonstrated huge potential for contributing to human civilization during the Vedic period.
For the purposes of this article, the term Ancient India refers to that period of Indian history which began in the early 3rd millennium BCE, when a literate, city-based culture first emerged, to the end of the brilliant Gupta dynasty, in CE. By this time all the essential foundations of Indian civilization had been laid down. As such, Ancient India plays a key role in world history. Its achievements can still be powerfully felt today, in a modern India and its growing influence around the world. Further Study History map of the Indus Valley civilization.
India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a region of highly developed civilization. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India:. Ancient India is the Indian subcontinent from prehistoric times to the start of Medieval India , which is typically dated when the term is still used to the end of the Gupta Empire. An elaborate periodisation may be as follows: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
New York: Pantheon Books. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.
Date : Sat. China and India are homes to two of the great ancient civilizations and retain distinctive cultures to this day. Especially during the last two decades, both have achieved extraordinary economic growth. Their sheer size and sharply increased material resources have made both countries rising and major powers in their often-troubled regions as well as potential adversaries with a modern history of tense relations including over territorial disputes, Tibet policy and other matters between themselves. China and India have pursued significantly—but not entirely—different paths to their recent economic success, with common turns toward economic markets and international economic integration but with contrasting approaches to the roles of the state in the economy, political democracy, the rule of law, and other features of economies, societies and polities. The global economic crisis that began in has complicated the picture.
House ,. D. D. KOSAMBI. Poona 4, India,. July 31, CHAPTER ONE. The Historical Perspective. The Indian Scene. A DISPASSIONATE observer who.
Many races and tribes intermingled in early India. A significant attribute of ancient Indian culture has been the commingling of cultural elements from the north and south, and from the east and west. Ancient India also saw the birth of Brahmanism or Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, but all these cultures and religions intermingled and interacted.