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Human Exceptionality School Community And Family Pdf

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Kennedy in , and later reorganized through executive order into an official panel by Lyndon B.

After a comprehensive six-chapter introduction to the foundation and challenges across the lifespan for people with exceptionalities, the successive nine chapters focus on definitions, classifications, prevalence, causation, and characteristics of the major categories of exceptionality. Categorical chapters also provide practical information on the educational, medical, and social services aspects of working with people who are exceptional. An excellent resource for pre-service and in-service teachers as well as a range of human services professionals, the book's unique, human approach combines the most current research, detailed personal stories about exceptional persons, and fresh pedagogical features that help students understand and apply the material. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving….

Human Exceptionality TWELFTH EDITION

Kenya has great potential for enhancing education for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The fact that it has recognized the need to care for learners with special needs is commendable. In comparison to many African countries, Kenya and Nigeria are ahead in developing programs for special education in institutions of higher learning, and in starting schools and units for special education.

However, a legal mandate is still required as it would seal many loopholes that currently exist. Without it, the assessment of individual with intellectual disabilities cannot be administered correctly and professionally. In this article, the authors present a coherent account on various aspects related to learners with intellectual disabilities in Kenya. No doubt, the issues and challenges identified call for attention by not only the government of Kenya but also those interested in improving the status of learners with intellectual disabilities.

In the past, many scholars and educators held little hope for significantly enhancing the functioning of individuals with disabilities. They believed intellectual disability was static and not dynamic and therefore, nothing could be done to improve the condition of the affected individuals.

Consequently, educating individuals with intellectual disabilities was considered as a waste of time and services. Today, however, many people have become aware that the functionality of all people can be improved and that very few, especially those with mild to moderate disabilities, can eventually improve to the point at which they can no longer be classified as intellectually disabled. This is because they can function adequately and become integrated into the community Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, Much of the success being achieved by individuals with intellectual disabilities is attributed to a change in philosophy that includes respecting their rights as part and parcel of decision-making process.

In the last four decades, special education has attracted the attention it deserves. Individuals with intellectual disabilities have moved from a state of total exclusion, isolation, and rejection by the community to being regarded as individuals that need some consideration. The reason for this new impetus is simple: People are beginning to know what is happening in other parts of the world, due to technological advancement.

As in other changes, technology has transformed the way individuals act and think. Conversely, technology has enhanced dissemination of information to such an extent that educators in Kenya are exposed to the ways other countries in the world educate individuals with disabilities and how to lobby their government to exert efforts for providing more human and financial resources for learners with special needs.

While Kenya government recognizes the need to educate all children, including those with exceptional needs, there lacks of a mechanism to ensure and oversee that all students have equal access to education. The crucial question regarding persons with disabilities, especially those with intellectual disabilities is: how will the rights of persons with exceptionalities be protected from economic, social, and political neglect?

A true litmus test for any stable democratic government is reflected in how it cares for and protects its most vulnerable citizens. In this context, the Kenya government has not only failed in making provisions in terms of human and capital resources necessary to improve the lives of these individuals but also in the advancement of rights for individuals with disabilities.

Unfortunately, many students with disabilities come from low socio-economic backgrounds. The unvoiced societal message is clear: The productive individuals must be given the available resources first before individuals with disabilities can be considered. Disabilities are multicultural in that their impact exceeds racial, religious, tribal, and socio-economic barriers.

Parents from high socio-economic status who have children with disabilities can afford medical services. Unfortunately, due to poverty and environmental variables that come with it, the prevalence of students with disabilities from low socio-economic status is higher than that of children from those that come from affluent homes.

Sadly, medical services are therefore, not available to those who need them most. An exact number of individuals with special needs are not available Ndurumo, It is critical to understand that special education and medical fields are closely connected especially regarding cases for students with severe intellectual impairments. It is not unusual for such individuals to be diagnosed and taken to mental hospitals.

In Kenya, medical services are not free, which means that poor people have limited access to government-assisted services. The government introduced cost-sharing system where only those who can afford it receive treatment. As is typical in many developing countries, the gap between the rich and the poor in Kenya is enormous Weil, Inevitably, the majorities of the people are poor and cannot afford to meet their basic needs in life. Paying for medical services is beyond their means.

Education is a critical tool to liberate the mind from the shackles of poverty and ignorance because it helps an individual to evaluate a problem and come up with alternative solutions. Educated parents can handle a child with disabilities better than their counterparts without education Sleeper, Due to lack of mechanism to enforce and oversee special education services, there has been an ineffective effort to identify reliable and valid instruments to assess the strengths and weaknesses of students with special needs.

These procedures, coupled with lack of funding and its ripple effect in other areas, will be discussed in the following subsections.

Intellectual disability is a subset of special education and therefore will be discussed in the context of special education. Education of individuals with intellectual disabilities cannot be full addressed without taking cognizance of the challenges facing special needs education today.

This is an important ingredient in the entire process of education. An appropriate assessment should ensure that students with special needs are appropriately placed in programs that address their unique needs. Assessment should be conducted when a student or students experience difficulty in meeting the academic demands of the general education program and are referred for consideration for special education services.

While the Kenyan government has set up assessment centers in every district throughout the country, the question of validity and reliability of the instruments used has not been addressed. Furthermore, due to lack of proper assessment tools and trained personnel, early identification and placement are nonexistent in many parts of the country.

Procedural practices of special education in the United States require that before a student is placed in any special education program, there are a series of salient steps that are followed. The first step is identification and referral. According to McLoughlin and Lewis referrals are initiated when the parent, the teacher or other professionals complete a referral form which describes the nature of the problem the child is having and the duration the problem.

In the US, this process has not been without fault. In Kenya, students with disabilities are indiscriminately integrated into general education or placed in special schools.

Such assumption is erroneous, misleading, and unacceptable. A comprehensive law and service regulations delineating the procedures should be followed during the assessment process and should be put in place.

Labels may carry positive or negative connotations; and therefore great caution must be taken before giving a label to any student. Labels affect how individuals think and perceive themselves, set boundaries on what they can achieve, and can also influence how individuals are perceived by others. In Kenya, students with disabilities are not adequately categorized.

This is as a result of many factors which include cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, high-rate illiteracy, untrained personnel and lack of funding Ndurumo, The study had a sample of pre —service teachers in all categories of special education.

All the participants were enrolled in an introductory course in neuropsychology, a core class required for all special education majors. The findings seem to show that the government policy and funding for individuals with disabilities positively correlated with the prevailing societal perception regarding individuals with disabilities.

Culturally, individuals with disabilities are perceived as liabilities than assets. The New Kenya Constitution however, if implemented in totality will for the first time enable individuals with disabilities enjoy all rights like other citizens. The placement of students with special needs frequently determines the kind of programming they receive. This has not been the case in many programs in Kenya. In most cases, students with intellectual disabilities have been institutionalized, and this kind of segregation practice impairs both self-concept development and the ability to function in the community.

Consequently, when students are not identified properly, they do not receive instruction congruent to their intellectual abilities after being placed in large classroom environment. The authors of this article have observed that cross-categorical classification of students with disabilities is the norm in many special educations schools and units. Those who have been integrated into regular school are often placed in large classrooms where individual attention cannot be feasibly and adequately provided.

The placement of individuals with intellectual disabilities is determined by the severity of the impairment. The overriding rationale regarding education in Kenya is to equip learners with disabilities with adequate skills that will enable them pursue either post-secondary education or employment after high school.

Since all schools use the same curriculum in all grades, the emphasis in education system is academic oriented and does not train learners in technical skills that may lead to self-employment.

Although theoretically the goals of education for individuals with intellectual disabilities should be geared towards the achievement of outcomes that enhance self-sufficiency, including adult responsibility, community membership and education participation, in practice few attain those goals Mutua, It is doubtful whether this objective is met.

Few individuals with intellectual disabilities participating in the community are self-reliant or obtain employment. Less than one third of students without disabilities completing the Kenya Primary Certificate of Education are admitted into government-assisted high schools. On the other hand, their counterparts with intellectual disabilities have remote chances of going beyond elementary schools getting employment or receiving vocational education Ndurumo, In reality, gainful employment for individuals with intellectual disabilities remains unattainable.

Moreover, Kenya has not established viable vocational institutions for providing skills to individuals with disabilities.

This institution however, serves the elite and affluent who can afford to pay the high tuition fees required, and thereby, excluding many poor but deserving students.

This goes to show that in Kenya individuals with disabilities experience difficulties due prevalent social, cultural and economic prejudices, stigmatization, ostracism, and neglect Oriedo, The right of students with disabilities to special care and assistance, particularly in relation to access to educational opportunities are nonexistence as a separate educational policy but have been addressed in the recently passed Children's Act Government of Kenya, and Persons with Disabilities Act, According to Oriedo, , Kenya proposed Education Bill Amendment promises: a to provide skills and attitude with the goal of rehabilitation and adjustment of people with disabilities to the environment; b to provide adequate teachers who are skilled in both theory and practice of teaching students with special needs; c to increase inclusion of children with special needs in regular schools, related services, community-based programs, greater parent participation, and early identification of children of all exceptionality so that intervention can be initiated as early as possible.

In spite of the articulated government commitment and provision of the Kenyan constitution to provide formal and informal educational opportunities to individuals with disabilities, there is a mismatch between words and action Kiarie, ; Oriendo, , due to lack of an explicit special education policy Muuya, Despite the lack of the policy mandate and minimal financial investment, Kenya has made great strides in providing special education to address the need of individuals with disabilities.

Inequity towards these individuals arises from the family, the community and the society at large UDPK, People with disabilities have been denied justice through lack of interpreters in courts of law, access to social amenities wheelchairs, specially designed bathrooms, hearing aids etc. In addition, this segment of society has been marginalized during distribution of resources because they are as more of a liability than asset UDPK, According to the Kenya Institute of Educational Research Report and Mutua and Dimitrov b , laws protecting individuals with special needs children in general are nonexistent, not to mention the procedural safeguards.

Hierarchically, individuals with intellectual disabilities can be placed in the lower end of the pyramid as far as social status and productivity are concerned. They have suffered discrimination, abuse and neglect for a long time. They have had little or no access to education, health, employment, and rehabilitation Oriedo, Mere recognition of individuals with disabilities without laws that would ensure that this population enjoys all the rights as other citizens is not enough. Results from a UNESCO study that focused on 52 member nations, indicated that legislation is required to ensure that the rights of individuals with disabilities were enforced and respected.

UNESCO further indicated that legislation is needed to ensure the protection of rights and equal opportunities for persons with disabilities. Among the many reasons for this is the unfortunate view that funds should be allocated first to those without disabilities.

Yet, most of the parents of children with disabilities are extremely poor and are incapable of meeting the educational needs of their children.

It is strongly recommended that the Kenya Government enact laws to give strong support to the policy of provision of services. While mandatory registration may not be the panacea pertaining to provision of effective services, atleast such policies would clearly delineate the type of services to be provided thereby addressing the beneficiaries of these services.

Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family

Winston: Books. Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family. Michael L. Hardman, Clifford J. Drew, M.

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Kenya has great potential for enhancing education for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The fact that it has recognized the need to care for learners with special needs is commendable. In comparison to many African countries, Kenya and Nigeria are ahead in developing programs for special education in institutions of higher learning, and in starting schools and units for special education. However, a legal mandate is still required as it would seal many loopholes that currently exist. Without it, the assessment of individual with intellectual disabilities cannot be administered correctly and professionally. In this article, the authors present a coherent account on various aspects related to learners with intellectual disabilities in Kenya.

Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family

For some of you, this book is the beginning of your journey into the past, present, and future of people who are exceptional. It is a journey about those with diverse needs, desires, interests, backgrounds, characteristics, and lifestyles. What does the word exceptional mean to you?

Visit our Cengage Unlimited page for more information.

Account Options

 - Если служба безопасности обнаружит затянувшуюся надолго работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, перед нами возникнет целый ряд новых проблем. Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери. Сьюзан неохотно кивнула. План неплохой. Когда служба безопасности извлечет Хейла из подсобного помещения и обвинит в убийстве Чатрукьяна, он скорее всего попытается шантажировать их обнародованием информации о Цифровой крепости.

President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities

 Это уже не новость, директор.  - Джабба сплюнул.  - От взрывной волны я чуть не упал со стула. Где Стратмор.

Resilience in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

Сьюзан прищурилась. Ты сам отлично знаешь, что происходит. - А ну-ка пропусти меня, Грег, - сказала .

Он смотрел на девушку, понимая, что его поиски подошли к концу. Она вымыла голову и переоделась - быть может, считая, что так легче будет продать кольцо, - но в Нью-Йорк не улетела. Беккер с трудом сдерживал волнение.

1 Comments

Gianmarco S. 23.05.2021 at 04:35

[DOWNLAD] PDF Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family (Whatâ​€™s New in Education) Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family.

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