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Effect of Parental Involvement on Children’s Academic Achievement in Chile

Valerie J. Shute, Eric G. Hansen, Jody S. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between parental involvement PI and academic achievement, with special focus on the secondary school middle and high school level. The results first present how individual PI variables correlate with academic achievement and then move to more complex analyses of multiple variables on the general construct described in the literature. We end the results section by discussing the findings in light of the limitations of nonexperimental research and the different effects of children's versus parents' perspectives on academic achievement.

Such knowledge might inform parenting practices as well as school-based policies, practices, and interventions that involve working with parents. For example, such research might help in the design and development of interventions that maximize parental involvement, where it has been shown to have the most positive and powerful effect.

To assist in this endeavor, we reviewed the literature about the types of PI that might have an impact. This paper attempts to disentangle the knot by closely examining the current literature on the relationship between PI and academic achievement at the middle and high school levels.

In the s and early s, studies were published that suggested the importance of parental involvement in school. In the mids, the popular press, policy makers, and school administrators actively advocated PI. Schools have been encouraged to reexamine their parental involvement policies and programs and to demonstrate innovative approaches in order to obtain federal education dollars.

For example, eligibility for Title I funding is now contingent on the development of agreements where families and schools assume mutual responsibility for children's learning.

Less is known about PI than is commonly assumed. Early studies suggesting the importance of PI are, unfortunately, treated as definitive, regardless of the equivocal nature of the data, and they are used to support the position that virtually all types of PI are important. It is apparent that identifying the influence of PI on academic achievement is complicated by at least three factors: a researchers use different definitions for the PI construct, b there is a paucity of experimental studies in the PI research literature, and c mediating factors and interacting variables in the PI-academic achievement story are often ignored.

Any effort to clarify the role of PI in academic achievement must consider these issues. This paper examines the research literature on the relationship between PI and academic achievement, with particular focus on the middle and high school level.

This paper will examine how PI has been defined, describe the relationships between PI variables and academic achievement, attempt to generalize the results, and finally discuss key areas of controversy and areas for further research.

We began this literature review process by gathering and reviewing many books, reviews, meta-analyses, and individual articles relating to the PI literature.

The following online databases were employed to search and collect these sources. PsychInfo An online version of Psychological Abstracts that covers journal articles, book chapters, books, technical reports, and dissertations in psychology and psychological aspects of related disciplines.

These databases contain citations, abstracts and many full-text articles from magazines, journals, and newspapers. Google Scholar is a web site providing peer-reviewed papers, books, abstracts, and articles from academic publishers, professional societies, universities, and other scholarly organizations. The Brigham Library at Educational Testing Service and the Strozier Library at Florida State University both house comprehensive collections of educational, psychological, sociological, and testing literature.

The focus of the search was to access full-text documents using various search terms and keywords such as parental involvement , parental influence , peer influence , personality , academic achievement , and parental involvement. The search was not limited to a particular date range. From the large set of documents that we collected, a total of 74 documents met the criteria for inclusion in the literature review. The inclusion criteria consisted of topical relevance, focus on secondary education, and papers that presented results in terms of prominent PI variables.

Additional inclusion criteria were papers that studied any mediating factors and interacting variables in the PI-student academic achievement relationship.

The majority of the documents we obtained were fifty individual studies reported in journal articles, book chapters, and research reports, followed by eight books, six longitudinal studies, five NELS i. We omitted qualitative studies and studies that did not meet the specified criteria.

Figure 1 depicts the prominent aspects of PI found in the literature. We have grouped these variables into the two main categories of home and school activities. Many studies examine underlying aspects of PI, yet few do it in exactly the same way [ 1 ]. Such differences make it difficult to assess cumulative knowledge across studies and can also lead to contradictory findings. We will point these out in the results section as they arise.

The results of the literature review are presented in terms of how PI variables impact student academic achievement, in two sections: a findings around single PI variables and b findings of large-scale studies that analyze the PI construct in terms of a set of underlying variables.

Then, we discuss the findings in light of the limitations of nonexperimental research and the different effects of children's and parents' perspectives on academic achievement. In this section, we look at the results of different studies on prominent PI variables, including parent-child discussions about school, parental aspirations and expectations, parenting style, reading at home, checking homework, school involvement, and home rules and supervision.

The parent-child discussion variable refers to ongoing conversations between parents and their children concerning school-related activities, programs, near- and long-term school plans, and other academic issues. This variable frequently yields the strongest positive association with academic achievement [ 2 , 4 , 7 — 11 ]. McNeal [ 4 ], for example, found that the only dimension of parental involvement that was associated with improved achievement and reduced problematic behavior e.

Parent-child discussion has a significant relationship to student achievement , and a significant inverse relationship to truancy ,. Parental aspirations and expectations are often described collectively or used interchangeably in the literature. Taken together, aspirations and expectations reflect the degree to which parents presume that their child will perform well in school, now and in the future.

This variable appears in many PI research studies and is generally shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement. To date, of the PI papers we reviewed, the articles and large-scale studies that focus on parental expectations report a generally positive effect on student achievement. Similarly, Kurdek et al. Their results showed a clear quadratic relationship i. We now turn our attention to research involving parenting style.

According to various researchers [ 10 , 17 — 20 ], parenting style may be viewed along two dimensions: responsive and demanding see Figure 2. An authoritative parenting style is consistently and positively associated with student academic outcomes.

This style is characterized by parents who are both responsive and demanding lower right-hand corner of Figure 2. However, authoritarian and permissive styles as well as indifferent styles are negatively related to academic achievement [ 18 , 21 — 24 ]. We examined 28 articles that studied parenting style in some form or another and its relationship to academic achievement.

The following are mixed findings in the literature on the variable of parenting style. Authoritative parenting style is characterized by parents who develop and maintain close, warm relationships with their children while at the same time establishing structure and guidelines that are enforced as necessary. This parenting style was referred to in seven articles. They all reported a positive association with student achievement [ 25 — 30 ], except for one study that showed no effect for first generation Chinese Americans [ 31 ].

Aunola et al. They found that adolescents from authoritative families showed significantly greater achievement compared to other adolescents who experienced different parenting styles.

For example, in a study by Deslandes et al. The recent meta-analysis conducted by Jeynes [ 10 ] showed a strong positive association between parental style—defined as supportive, loving, helpful, and maintaining an adequate level of discipline—and academic achievement.

These positive associations may be due to the ability of parents with an authoritative parenting style to be loving and supportive and yet maintain an adequate level of discipline in the household. Parents with this parenting style also demonstrate qualities such as trust and approachability that motivate children to discuss academic problems and expectations with their parents.

Additionally, such parents are more likely to make contact with teachers when students have academic or behavioral problems [ 10 , 27 ]. PI in the form of behavioral supervision has shown either no association or a negative relationship with academic achievement [ 7 ].

And McNeal [ 4 ] showed that PI in the form of supervision generally explained behavioral outcomes e. This finding may be the result of minority parents feeling less comfortable getting involved in school-based activities and also being less likely to initiate meetings with school teachers when their child is facing an academic problem.

On the other hand, Deslandes et al. Fairly consistent associations between other PI variables and academic achievement include the following. For instance, Keith et al. Children of parents who closely monitor their activities spend less time watching television and more time on school-related activities, which in turn shows a positive relationship with academic achievement [ 11 ]. To summarize, there is seldom more than a small-to-moderate association between any individual PI variable and academic achievement.

Consequently, we can view these as potentially moderating or mediating variables in relation to student achievement. For example, in a longitudinal study conducted by Dearing et al.

We now explore more complex analyses of the PI construct. In this section, we describe six large-scale studies that have been conducted in the area of PI and academic achievement: 1 Fan and Chen [ 14 ], 2 Jeynes [ 10 ], 3 Desimone [ 9 ], 4 Keith et al.

Each of these studies looks at how a set of underlying variables may illuminate the relationship between overall PI and student academic achievement. The first study is a meta-analysis conducted by Fan and Chen [ 14 ]. The sample consisted of , students in 25 different studies, yielding 92 correlation coefficients. The method they used was to calculate average correlations between PI overall construct as well as specific dimensions and academic achievement.

The result from their analysis regarding the correlation of overall PI to academic achievement is. Similarly, our second large-scale study reported by Jeynes [ 10 ] found a positive relationship between PI and academic achievement. In his meta-analysis, Jeynes included 52 studies that involved more than , participants. Jeynes aimed to determine the influence of PI on the educational outcomes of urban secondary school children. For this study, PI was defined as parental participation in the educational processes and experiences of their children.

The specific PI variables included parental expectations, parent-child communication about school activities, parents checking homework before submission, and parental style i. Results revealed that the general PI variable yielded statistically significant outcomes of. The remaining variables i. Desimone [ 9 ] conducted a regression analysis examining 12 PI variables on one achievement variable scores on a standardized test of mathematics for a large sample of 8th graders in the NELS: 88 data.

The adjusted for this regression is. The regression results of the same 12 variables on two other achievement variables—scores on a standardized test of reading, and an average of self-reported grades in English, mathematics, science, and social studies—were similar to those reported for mathematics. These other regressions showed values of. Among the 12 variables predicting mathematics outcome, the strongest predictors of achievement include a students reporting that they talk with their parents about school positive relationship , b parents reporting contact with the school negative relationship , and c students reporting that parents check their homework regularly negative relationship.

One interesting finding from the study concerns whether the student or the parent was reporting on rules in the home rules on homework, GPA, chores, TV, friends, etc. That is, if the child perceives that parents have rules about doing chores, watching television, and going out with friends, there is a positive relationship to achievement.

Effect of Parental Involvement on Children’s Academic Achievement in Chile

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Enter content here. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo. Teachers who focus on parent engagement often see a profound change in their classrooms. Encouraging parent engagement is more than common courtesy.

credit parental involvement as a way to increase academic achievement effectively. Studies show that parents are, in fact, a strong independent variable in.

How Parent Involvement Leads to Student Success

Valerie J. Shute, Eric G. Hansen, Jody S. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between parental involvement PI and academic achievement, with special focus on the secondary school middle and high school level.

However, there is a lack of research in Chile, as well as in Latin American countries in general, leaving a gap in the literature about the generalization of findings outside developed and industrialized countries, where most of the research has been done. Cluster analysis results from a sample of parents or guardians whose children attended second and third grades in 16 public elementary schools in Chile suggested the existence of three different profiles of parental involvement high, medium, and low considering different forms of parental involvement at home, at school and through the invitations made by the children, the teachers, and the school. Findings are in line with international research evidence, suggesting the need to focus on this variable too in Latin American contexts.

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How Parent Involvement Leads to Student Success