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Anatomy Head And Neck Mcqs Pdf

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Netter's head and neck anatomy for dentistry, 2nd edition

NCBI Bookshelf. It is inclusive of osseous, nervous, arterial, venous, muscular, and lymphatic structures. Lymphadenopathy is a significant clinical finding associated with acute infection, granulomatous disease, autoimmune disease, and malignancy.

The head and neck contains a rich and elaborate lymphatic network of more than nodes and their intermediate channels. Aponeuroses bind them together with the muscles, nerves, and vessels of the head and neck. These lymphatic chains are strongly lateralized and typically do not directly communicate between left and right in the absence of a pathologic process.

This lymphatic drainage originates at the base of the skull, then proceeds to the jugular chain adjacent to the internal jugular vein.

From there it moves into the spinal accessory chain adjacent to the spinal accessory nerve, or cranial nerve XI, and then meets the supraclavicular chain. The lymphatics then drain on both sides. On the left side, they drain either directly into the vasculature via the jugulo-subclavian venous confluence or directly into the thoracic duct.

On the right side, they flow directly into the lymphatic duct. These include the nasopharynx, pharyngeal wall, base of the tongue, soft palate, and larynx. The lymph nodes of the neck are further classified by level. The anterior compartment contains this nodal group, which is symmetric about the anatomic midline. Level VIa. The lymphatic drainage of the head and neck is unique. These, in turn, are related to malignant neoplasms arising from specific anatomic structures.

Intimate knowledge of this network allows the surgeon to complete an oncologically-appropriate dissection. Lymphatic System, Cervical lymph nodes, Lymphatics of the mammary gland, Cisterna chyli, Lumbar lymph nodes, Pelvic lymph nodes, Lymphatics of the lower limb, Thoracic duct, Thymus, Axillary lymph nodes, Spleen, Lymphatics of the upper limb, Inguinal more Lymph nodes of the neck; Posterior view, Afferent vessel to deep cervical glands, Afferent vessels of retropharyngeal glands, Retropharyngeal glands, Glandular nodule, Gland of deep cervical chain, Efferent vessels of retropharyngeal glands.

Contributed more Lymph nodes of the arm, Deltoid pectoral glands, Axillary glands, Supratrochlear gland. Contributed by Gray's anatomy Plates. Station for cervical lymph nodes. Contributed by Shekhar Gogna MD. This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

StatPearls [Internet]. Search term. Affiliations 1 University of Maryland. Blood Supply and Lymphatics The head and neck contains a rich and elaborate lymphatic network of more than nodes and their intermediate channels. It is bounded anteriorly by the platysma muscle, posteriorly by the mylohyoid muscles, laterally by the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, and medially by the virtual anatomic midline.

Drainage This group drains the skin of the mental region, or chin, the mid-lower lip, the anterior portion of the oral tongue, and the floor of the mouth. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the floor of the mouth, anterior oral tongue, mandibular alveolar ridge, and lower lip. Anatomy Level Ib contains the submandibular nodal group, bounded superiorly by the mylohyoid muscle and inferiorly by the hyoid bone.

It is bounded anteriorly by the symphysis menti, posteriorly by the posterior edge of the submandibular gland, laterally by the inner surface of the mandible, and medially by the digastric muscle.

These boundaries form a triangular region also termed the submandibular triangle. Drainage They drain the efferent lymphatics from level Ia, the lower nasal cavity, both the hard and soft palates, and both maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges.

They also drain them from the skin and mucosa of the cheek, both upper and lower lips, the floor of the mouth, and the anterior oral tongue. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the oral cavity, anterior nasal cavity, soft-tissues of the mid-face, and submandibular gland.

Anatomy Level II represents the beginning of the jugular chain. It contains the upper jugular nodal group, adjacent to the top third of the internal jugular vein IJV and upper spinal accessory nerve.

It is bounded superiorly by the insertion of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle into the mastoid process, and inferiorly by the caudal border of the hyoid bone or alternatively, as a surgical landmark, the carotid bifurcation. It is bounded anteriorly by the posterior edge of the submandibular gland, posteriorly by the posterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle SCM , laterally by the medial surface of the SCM, and medially by the internal carotid artery and scalenus muscle.

Drainage This group drains the efferent lymphatics of the face, parotid gland, level Ia, level Ib, and retropharyngeal nodes. It receives direct drainage from the nasal cavity, the entire pharyngeal axis, larynx, external auditory canal, middle ear, and the sublingual and submandibular glands. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the nasal and oral cavities, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and major salivary glands.

It is the most commonly involved nodal level. It is bounded superiorly by the caudal border of the hyoid bone, and inferiorly by the caudal edge of the cricoid cartilage or alternatively, as a surgical landmark, the plan where the omohyoid muscle crosses the IJV.

It is also bounded anteriorly by the anterior edge of the SCM, or the posterior third of the thyrohyoid muscle, and posteriorly by the posterior border of the SCM. Finally, it is bordered laterally by the medial surface of the SCM, and medially by the internal carotid artery and scalenus muscle. Drainage This group drains the efferent lymphatics from level II and level V, and partially from the retropharyngeal, pretracheal, and recurrent laryngeal nodes.

It receives direct drainage from the base of the tongue, tonsils, larynx, hypopharynx, and thyroid gland. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx.

It is bounded superiorly by the caudal border of the cricoid cartilage, and inferiorly by a virtual level two centimeters superior to the sternoclavicular joint, based off surgical conventions of level IVa dissection. It is bounded anteriorly by the anterior edge of the SCM more superiorly and the body of the SCM more inferiorly , and posteriorly by the posterior edge of the SCM more superiorly and the SM more inferiorly.

This group is also laterally bound by the medial edge of the SCM more superiorly and the lateral edge of the SCM more inferiorly. Drainage This group drains the efferent lymphatics from levels III and V, and partially from the retropharyngeal, pretracheal, and recurrent laryngeal nodes.

It receives direct drainage from the larynx, hypopharynx, and thyroid gland. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the hypopharynx, larynx, thyroid, cervical esophagus, and rarely, the anterior oral cavity.

Deposits from the anterior oral cavity can manifest without proximal nodal involvement. Anatomy This nodal group is a continuation of level IVa to the superior edge of the sternal manubrium. It is bounded anteriorly by the deep surface of the SCM. Posteriorly, it is bound by the anterior edge of the scalenus muscle more superiorly and the lung apex, brachiocephalic vein, and artery on the right, as well as the common carotid and subclavian arteries on the left more inferiorly.

It is bounded laterally by the lateral edge of the scalenus muscle, and medially by the medial border of the common carotid artery which is also adjacent to level VI. Drainage This group drains the efferent lymphatics from levels IVa and Vc, and partially from the pretracheal and recurrent laryngeal nodes.

It receives direct drainage from the larynx, trachea, hypopharynx, esophagus, and thyroid gland. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the hypopharynx, subglottic larynx, trachea, thyroid, and cervical esophagus.

Anatomy These nodal groups are contained with the posterior triangle. They are situated posteriorly to the SCM, and adjacent to the inferior portion of the spinal accessory nerve and transverse cervical vessels.

It is bounded superiorly by the superior edge of the hyoid bone and inferiorly by a virtual plane crossing the transverse vessels. It is bound anteriorly by the posterior margin of the SCM, and posteriorly by the anterior border of the trapezius muscle.

A virtual plane at the inferior edge of the cricoid cartilage divides this group into upper, or Va, and lower, or Vb, posterior triangles. Drainage These nodal groups drain the efferent lymphatics from the occipital, retro-auricular, occipital, and parietal scalp nodes. It receives direct drainage from the skin of the lateral and posterior neck and shoulder, the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and thyroid gland.

Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and thyroid. Anatomy This nodal group is a continuation of levels Va and Vb; it contains the lateral supraclavicular group. It is bounded superiorly by a virtual plan crossing the transverse vessels, and inferiorly by a virtual plan 2 cm superior to the sternoclavicular join.

It is also bounded anteriorly by the skin and posteriorly by the anterior border of the trapezius muscles more superiorly and the serratus anterior more inferiorly. Laterally, it is bounded by the trapezius muscle more superiorly and the clavicle more inferiorly. Drainage This group drains the efferent lymphatics from levels Va and Vb.

Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the nasopharynx. Anatomy Level VIa is bounded superiorly by the inferior edge of level Ib and inferiorly by the superior edge of the sternal manubrium. It is bounded anteriorly by the skin and platysma, posteriorly by the anterior surface of the infrahyoid muscles, and bilaterally by the anterior edges of the SCMs.

Drainage Level VIa drains the integuments of the lower face and the anterior neck. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the lower lip and soft tissues of the chin, such as advanced gingiva-mandibular carcinoma. Anatomy Level VIb is bounded superiorly by the superior edge of the thyroid cartilage and inferiorly by the superior border of the sternal manubrium. This group is bordered laterally by the common carotid artery and medially by the lateral aspects of the trachea and esophagus.

Drainage Level VIb drains the efferent lymphatics from the anterior floor of the mouth, tip of the oral tongue, lower lip, thyroid gland, glottic and supraglottic larynx, hypopharynx, and cervical esophagus. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the lower lip, oral cavity floor of the mouth and anterior oral tongue , thyroid, glottic and subglottic larynx, the apex of the piriform sinus, and the cervical esophagus.

Anatomy These nodes are contained in the retropharyngeal space. They are divided into medial and lateral subgroups. The lateral groups are bounded superiorly by the superior edge of the C1 vertebral body, or the hard palate, and inferiorly by the superior edge of the body of the hyoid bone. They are bordered posteriorly by the longus capitis and longus colli muscles, laterally by the medial edge of the internal carotid artery, and medially by a virtual line parallel to the lateral edge of the longus capitis muscle.

The medial groups are approximated at the midline and not well-defined. Drainage These nodes drain the efferent lymphatics from the nasopharynx, eustachian tube, and soft palate. Associated primary malignancies These nodes most often contain metastatic deposits from malignancies of the nasopharynx, pharyngeal wall, and oropharynx including tonsillar fossa and soft palate. Anatomy These nodes are contained in the fatty space surrounding the large vessels of the neck leading to the jugular foramen.

Anatomy Q Bank Head and Neck

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The primary aim of this compact volume is to complement and support dental students' anatomical study. More atlas than text it is nonetheless comprehensive in its approach with over 1, expertly drawn, colour coded and precisely annotated illustrations; the majority of which were originally drawn by Frank H. Netter, a celebrated American physician and artist.

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NCBI Bookshelf. It is inclusive of osseous, nervous, arterial, venous, muscular, and lymphatic structures. Lymphadenopathy is a significant clinical finding associated with acute infection, granulomatous disease, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. The head and neck contains a rich and elaborate lymphatic network of more than nodes and their intermediate channels. Aponeuroses bind them together with the muscles, nerves, and vessels of the head and neck. These lymphatic chains are strongly lateralized and typically do not directly communicate between left and right in the absence of a pathologic process.


5) Regarding lymph drainage of head and neck, which is INCORRECT? a) superficial cervical 5) Regarding anatomy of the neck, landmarks: a) the arch of the.


MCQs for Netter’s Head and Neck Anatomy (2015).pdf

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 - Двухцветный снова хмыкнул.  - Эдди места себе не находит. - В Коннектикут. - Я же сказал. Возвращается домой, к мамочке и папочке, в свой пригород. Ей обрыдли ее испанская семейка и местное житье-бытье.

Чаша быстро приближалась к нему справа. Люди отпивали по глотку вина, крестились и поднимались, направляясь к выходу. Хорошо бы помедленнее. Беккеру не хотелось так быстро уходить от алтаря, но когда две тысячи людей ждут причастия, а обслуживают их всего восемь священнослужителей, было бы неприличным медлить с этим священным глотком. Чаша была уже совсем близко, когда Халохот заметил человека в пиджаке и брюках разного цвета. - Estas ya muerto, - тихо прошептал он, двигаясь по центральному проходу.

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Naomi M. 19.05.2021 at 05:25

Section Two: Scenario-Based Questions: the questions are primary MCQs based on given scenarios (Cases) to cover the level of comprehension.

Herzminsonsrid 20.05.2021 at 00:24

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