File Name: electric power generation transmission and distribution .zip
There are three stages of electric power supply; generation, transmission and distribution. Each of these stages involves distinct production processes, work activities and hazards.
Most electricity is generated at 13, to 24, volts. The hazards of the electrical power generation process include explosions and burns resulting from unexpected equipment failure. These procedures are in place to control energy sources. Before performing maintenance on equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the equipment must be isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
After electrical power is generated, it is transmitted over distances using transmission lines. Transmission lines are constructed between transmission substations located at electric generating stations. Transmission lines may be supported overhead on towers or they may be underground. They are operated at high voltages. They send out large amounts of electrical power and extend over considerable distances.
When electricity comes out of a generating station, the transmission substation located there steps up the voltages to the range of ,—, volts. Within the operating area, transmission substations reduce the transmitted voltage to 34,—, volts. This power is then carried through lines to the distribution systems located in the local service territory. The major hazards present during the transmission process are electrical. Failure to maintain proper approach distances or use appropriate protective equipment rubber gloves and sleeves can result in serious injury or death.
Falls also are a source of serious accidents and can occur during maintenance work on overhead lines and while working from poles or bucket trucks. The distribution substation reduces the transmitted electrical voltage to 2,—19, volts. A distribution transformer further reduces the voltage. Hazards related to distribution work also are electrical in nature. However, there is the additional hazard of working in enclosed spaces manholes and vaults when dealing with an underground distribution system.
Transmission and distribution substations are installations where the voltage, phase or other characteristics of the electrical energy are changed as part of the final distribution process. Electrocutions represent the primary safety hazard in substations. The Standard covers all electric utility workers involved in the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, transmission and distribution equipment and associated equipment.
In addition, contract lineworkers, contract line clearance tree trimmers and independent power producers are also covered by the provisions of Other countries and regions have similar regulations. The hazards that are directly addressed by the OSHA standard are those of an electrical nature which would cause electrocution and injuries resulting from electric shock.
The consequences of inadvertent contact with high-voltage electricity are often death or serious injuries such as second- and third-degree burns, amputation of limbs, damage to internal organs and neurological damage. The standard also addresses fatalities and injuries associated with four other types of accidents—struck by or struck against; falls from ladders, scaffolds, poles or other elevations; caught in or between as a result of the accidental activation of machinery during routine maintenance work; and contact with temperature extremes which can occur when high-pressure steam is inadvertently released during maintenance work on boilers.
ERG reported that in the transmission and distribution line category, line workers, apprentice line workers and working line supervisors experience the most fatal and serious lost-time accidents. Within the substation and power generation category, substation electricians and general utility mechanics experience the most accidents. OSHA has estimated that in the United States an average of 12, lost workday injuries occur annually to electric power generation, transmission and distribution employees.
They also report that 86 fatalities occur to these workers annually. OSHA estimates that 1, lost workday injuries and 61 deaths can be prevented annually through compliance with the provisions of this standard and the other standards referenced in the final rule.
OSHA breaks down the reduction in lost-workday injuries and fatalities into two categories. OSHA also expects the greatest reduction in lost workday injuries to be experienced by the electric utilities. The second category of reduction relates to the referencing of existing standards within For example, OSHA expects the employer to provide medical services and first aid as specified in Excavation operations shall comply with Subpart P of ; personal protective equipment shall meet the requirements of Subpart I of ; personal fall-arrest equipment shall meet the requirements of Subpart E of Part ; and ladders shall comply with Subpart D of OSHA believes that these references will foster an increased recognition of the various applicable safety standards and, together with employee training and emphasis on hazard recognition through job briefings, an additional 2 fatalities and 1, lost-workday injuries will be prevented annually.
The Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Standard provides a comprehensive approach for the control of hazards found in the electric utility industry. This is considered a performance-based standard, where the employer has the opportunity to implement alternative programmes provided he or she can demonstrate that they provide a level of safety equivalent to that specified in the standard.
The standard is comprehensive and addresses all aspects of the operation and maintenance of power generation, transmission and distribution equipment. Some of the most significant provisions of the Standard include requirements for employees to have emergency aid training, job briefings, and training in safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and emergency procedures including manhole and pole-top rescue.
There are also specific clothing requirements for working on energized equipment, and requirements for entry into underground structures, as well as the control of hazardous energy sources. Another significant element of the standard requires employers to certify that employees have been appropriately trained and can demonstrate proficiency in the work practices specified in the standard.
A few of these elements are discussed in more detail below. OSHA requires that employees performing work on or associated with exposed lines or equipment energized at 50 volts or more be trained in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR.
For field work involving two or more employees at a work location, at least two employees shall be trained. For fixed work locations such as a generating station, a sufficient number of employees must be trained to ensure that an employee exposed to electric shock can be reached within 4 minutes.
The lead employee in a work group must conduct a job briefing with the employees involved in the work before they start each job.
The briefing must cover the hazards associated with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy source controls and personal protective equipment. For repetitive and similar jobs there must be one job briefing before the start of the first job of each day or shift. When significant changes occur, another briefing must be conducted. Reviewing the task at hand requires job planning, and job planning helps to reduce accidents.
OSHA also has required that the employer certify that each employee has received the training required to be qualified and competent. Training alone is inadequate. This will help ensure that only qualified workers work on energized equipment.
There are clothing requirements for workers who are exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs. The section requires that the employer ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of injury that would be sustained by the employee.
Clothing made from acetate, nylon, polyester or rayon, either alone or in blends, is prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that the fabric has been treated to withstand the condition that may be encountered.
Employees may choose among cotton, wool or flame-retardant clothing, but the employer must determine, based on the exposure, whether or not a natural fibre such as cotton or wool is acceptable.
Cotton or wool could ignite under certain circumstances. Although this section of the standard has caused much controversy throughout the industry, prohibiting the use of synthetics is a significant step towards reducing injuries to electrical workers.
Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia US Department of Energy. Electric Power Annual Federal Register, Vol. Wertheimer, N and E Leeper. Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer. Am J Epidemiol Rate this item 1 2 3 4 5 8 votes. Generation, Transmission and Distribution There are three stages of electric power supply; generation, transmission and distribution.
Accident Reduction OSHA has estimated that in the United States an average of 12, lost workday injuries occur annually to electric power generation, transmission and distribution employees.
General Provisions The Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Standard provides a comprehensive approach for the control of hazards found in the electric utility industry. Significant Provisions Some of the most significant provisions of the Standard include requirements for employees to have emergency aid training, job briefings, and training in safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and emergency procedures including manhole and pole-top rescue.
Read times Last modified on Tuesday, 28 June Published in Power Generation and Distribution. ILO Content Manager. Preface Part I. The Body Part II. Tools and Approaches Part V. Chemicals Part X. Power Generation and Distribution References. Lamarre, L. Assessing the risks of utility hazardous air pollutants. EPRI Journal 20 1 United Nations. New York: United Nations. Uranium Institute. The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. London: Uranium Institute.
Transmission and distribution refers to the different stages of carrying electricity over poles and wires from generators to a home or a business. The primary distinction between the two is the voltage level at which electricity moves in each stage. After electricity has been generated, a system of electrical wires carries the electricity from the source of generation to our homes and businesses. It refers to the part of electricity delivery that moves bulk electricity from the generation sites over long distances to substations closer to areas of demand for electricity. Transmission lines move large amounts of power at a high voltage level — a level that is too much to be delivered directly to a home or business.
Save extra with 2 Offers. About The Book Electric Power Generation Book Summary: This accessible text, now in its Second Edition, continues to provide a comprehensive coverage of electric power generation, transmission and distribution, including the operation and management of different systems in these areas. It gives an overview of the basic principles of electrical engineering and load characteristics and provides exhaustive system-level description of several power plants, such as thermal, electric, nuclear and gas power plants. The book fully explores the basic theory and also covers emerging concepts and technologies. Numerous solved examples, inter-spersed throughout, illustrate the concepts discussed. Provides two new chapters on Diesel Engine Power Plants and Power System Restructuring to make the students aware of the changes taking place in the power system industry. Includes more solved and unsolved problems in each chapter to enhance the problem solving skills of the students.
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Premium Membership. Learn from experienced power engineers. The drawback of radial electrical power distribution system can be overcome by introducing a ring main electrical power distribution system. Here one ring network of distributors is fed by more than one feeder.
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The generation, delivery, and utilization of electric power and energy remain one of the most challenging and exciting fields of electrical engineering. The astounding technological developments of our age are highly dependent upon a safe, reliable, and economic supply of electric power. The objective of the Electric Power Engineering Handbook is to provide a contemporary overview of this far-reaching field as well as a useful guide and educational resource for its study.
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This Book provides an clear examples on each and every topics covered in the contents of the book to provide an every user those who are read to develop their knowledge. The text presents the topic in a clear, simple, practical, logical and cogent fashion that provides the students with insights into theory as well as applications to practical problems. Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution The Electric Power Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edition written to meet exhaustively the requirements of various syllabus in the subject of the courses in B. Sc Engineering of various Indian Universities. Grigsby Free?
There are three stages of electric power supply; generation, transmission and distribution. Each of these stages involves distinct production processes, work activities and hazards. Most electricity is generated at 13, to 24, volts. The hazards of the electrical power generation process include explosions and burns resulting from unexpected equipment failure. These procedures are in place to control energy sources. Before performing maintenance on equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the equipment must be isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative. After electrical power is generated, it is transmitted over distances using transmission lines.
The generation, delivery, and utilization of electric power and energy remain one of the most challeng- ing and exciting fields of electrical engineering.
The U. Data for each state and for the entire United States are in Table Supply and Disposition of Electricity of each profile. To find the table, scroll down a Profile page to find the link under Table 1 for Full data tables
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant , to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery , known as the " power grid " in North America , or just "the grid".
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Блестящий криптограф - и давнишнее разочарование Хейла.