File Name: list of metals and their ores .zip
Metals are the element that loses electrons easily and have positive ions or cations. It consists of metallic bonds. Detail analysis of Metals its properties and reactivity series.
Ore is natural rock or sediment that contains one or more valuable minerals , typically containing metals , that can be mined, treated and sold at a profit. Ore is extracted from the earth through mining and treated or refined , often via smelting , to extract the valuable metals or minerals. The value of the metals or minerals a rock contains must be weighed against the cost of extraction to determine whether it is of sufficiently high grade to be worth mining, and is therefore considered an ore. Minerals of interest are generally oxides , sulfides , silicates , or native metals such as copper or gold. Ores must be processed to extract the elements of interest from the waste rock.
Most pure metals are either too soft, brittle, or chemically reactive for practical use, and few pure metals occur naturally.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form in nature, either pure or as an alloy. Native metal : Native gold partially embedded in quartz gangue. Only gold, silver, copper and the platinum metals occur in nature in larger amounts. Over geological time scales, very few metals can resist natural weathering processes like oxidation.
This is why only the less reactive metals such as gold and platinum are found as native metals. The others usually occur as isolated pockets where a natural chemical process reduces a common compound or ore of the metal. This leaves the pure metal behind as small flakes or inclusions.
The process of extracting metals from their ores called smelting is thought to have been discovered around BC. However, these metals could be found only in relatively small amounts, so they could not be used extensively. So while copper and iron were known well before the Copper Age and Iron Age, they would not have a large impact on humankind until the technology to smelt them from their ores, and thus mass-produce them, appeared. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements in solid solution in which the major component is a metal.
Most pure metals are either too soft, brittle, or chemically reactive for practical use. Combining different ratios of metals as alloys modifies the properties of pure metals to produce desirable characteristics. The aim of making alloys is generally to make the metals less brittle, harder, or more resistant to corrosion, or to improve their color or luster.
Of all the metallic alloys in use today, the alloys of iron steel, stainless steel, cast iron, tool steel, and alloy steel make up the largest proportion both by quantity and commercial value. Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon steels; the increased carbon levels reduce ductility and toughness. Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper, and magnesium.
Copper alloys have been known since prehistory— bronze gave the Bronze Age its name—and have many applications today, most importantly in electrical wiring. The alloys of the other three metals were developed more recently; due to their chemical reactivity, they require electrolytic extraction processes. The alloys of aluminium, titanium, and magnesium are valued for their high strength-to-weight ratios, and magnesium can also provide electromagnetic shielding.
These materials are ideal for situations where high strength-to-weight ratio is more important than material cost, such as in aerospace and some automotive applications. Alloys specially designed for highly demanding applications, such as jet engines, may contain more than ten elements.
Metals are often extracted from the Earth by means of mining, resulting in ores that are relatively rich sources of the requisite elements. Ore is located by prospecting techniques, followed by the exploration and examination of deposits.
Mineral sources are generally divided into surface mines, which are mined by excavation using heavy equipment, and subsurface mines. Mining : Chuquicamata, Chile, is the site of the largest circumference and second deepest open pit copper mine in the world.
After the ore is mined, the metals must be extracted, usually by chemical or electrolytic reduction. Pyrometallurgy uses high temperatures to convert ore into raw metals, while hydrometallurgy employs aqueous chemistry for the same purpose. The methods used depend on the metal and their contaminants. When a metal ore is an ionic compound of that metal and a non-metal, the ore must usually be smelted or heated with a reducing agent to extract the pure metal.
Many common metals, such as iron, are smelted using carbon as a reducing agent. Some metals, such as aluminium and sodium, have no commercially practical reducing agent, and are extracted using electrolysis instead.
Sulfide ores are not reduced directly to the metal, but are roasted in air to convert them to oxides. A metal can refer to an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Example metals include gold, sodium, copper, iron, and many other elements.
Metals are usually malleable, ductile, and shiny. Metals typically consist of close-packed atoms, meaning that the atoms are arranged like closely packed spheres.
In a metal, atoms readily lose electrons to form positive ions cations. Those ions are surrounded by de-localized electrons, which are responsible for the conductivity. The solid produced is held together by electrostatic interactions between the ions and the electron cloud, which are called metallic bonds. Metals are shiny and lustrous with a high density. They have very high melting and boiling points because metallic bonding is very strong, so the atoms are reluctant to break apart into a liquid or gas.
Sodium Metal : Sodium metal is soft enough to be cut with a plastic knife. Metals in general are conductive, with high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity. Typically they are malleable and ductile, deforming under stress without cleaving. The electrical and thermal conductivities of metals originate from the fact that their outer electrons are delocalized.
This means the electrons are not locked into any one atom but can move freely throughout the metal. Metals can be viewed as a collection of atoms embedded in a sea of electrons, which are highly mobile.
This is very instrumental in the conductivity of the metal. Metals are usually inclined to form cations through electron loss. An example is the reaction with oxygen in the air to form oxides over various timescales iron rusts over years, while potassium burns in seconds. The transition metals such as iron, copper, zinc, and nickel are slower to oxidize because they form a passivating layer of oxide that protects the interior.
Others, like palladium, platinum, and gold, do not react with the atmosphere at all. Some metals form a barrier layer of oxide on their surface, which cannot be penetrated by further oxygen molecules.
As a result, they retain their shiny appearance and good conductivity for many decades like aluminium, magnesium, some steels, and titanium. Recall that in the periodic table, each row is called a period. The rows are aligned in such a way that the elements in each vertical column share certain characteristics.
Each of the columns of the periodic table is called a group. Chemists have long found it convenient to refer to the elements of different groups, and in some cases of spans of groups, by the names shown in the table.
Trends in the periodic table : Families of the periodic table are often grouped by metallic properties. When two elements are joined in a chemical bond, the element that attracts the shared electrons more strongly has more electronegativity.
Elements with low electronegativity tend to have more metallic properties. So, the metallic properties of elements tends to decrease across a period and increase down a group.
The fact that the metallic elements are found on the left side of the periodic table offers an important clue to the nature of how they bond together to form solids.
These elements all possess low electronegativities and readily form positive ions. Metals tend to form positive ions, and like charges repel, so how do metal atoms stay bonded together in a solid? In effect, the electropositive nature of the metallic atoms allows their valence electrons to exist as a mobile fluid. This results in their high electrical conductivities. Because each ion is surrounded by the electron fluid in all directions, the bonding has no directional properties; this accounts for the high malleability and ductility of metals.
The aim of making alloys is generally to make them less brittle, harder, resistant to corrosion, or have a more desirable color and luster. Key Terms mining : The activity of removing solid valuables from the earth.
General Properties of Metals A metal can refer to an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Learning Objectives Recall the general properties of metallic elements. Key Takeaways Key Points The electrical and thermal conductivities of metals originate from the fact that their outer electrons are delocalized. Metals are usually inclined to form cations through electron loss, reacting with oxygen in the air to form oxides over various timescales: for example, iron rusts over years, while potassium burns in seconds.
Metals are typically malleable and ductile, deforming under stress without cleaving, and they are also shiny and lustrous. Key Terms metal : Any of a number of chemical elements in the periodic table that form a metallic bond with other metal atoms; generally shiny, somewhat malleable and hard, often a conductor of heat and electricity conductive : Able to conduct electrical current or heat.
Periodic Trends in Metallic Properties Metallic properties tend to decrease across a period and increase down a periodic group. Learning Objectives Describe the bonding in metallic elements. Key Takeaways Key Points Group names in the periodic table give clues about the metallic properties of the elements. Metallic elements are found on the left side of the periodic table. A simple conception of metals describes them as a lattice of positive ions immersed in a sea of electrons. Key Terms electronegative : Tending to attract electrons to form a chemical bond.
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A native metal is any metal that is found pure in its metallic form in nature. Among the alloys found in native state have been brass , bronze , pewter , German silver , osmiridium , electrum , white gold , silver-mercury amalgam , and gold-mercury amalgam. Only gold, silver, copper and the platinum group occur native in large amounts. Over geological time scales, very few metals can resist natural weathering processes like oxidation , so mainly the less reactive metals such as gold and platinum are found as native metals. The others usually occur as isolated pockets where a natural chemical process reduces a common compound or ore of the metal, leaving the pure metal behind as small flakes or inclusions.
List of Important Metals and their Ores. Metals are the element that loses electrons easily and have positive ions or cations. It consists of metallic bonds. Minerals are the natural materials in which the metals and their compounds are found in earth.
When the earth was formed the molten mass contained the many different metals which today we extract and use in huge quantities. Most of the metals combined with rock when molten, to form metallic ores. The most common of these are bauxite, from which aluminium is extracted, and iron ore from which iron is extracted. More than seventy different metals are extracted and used in the manufacturing industries today.
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A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form in nature, either pure or as an alloy.