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Cover art Woodland Night pp. Frank In this issue, we highlight talented biomimicry interest groups from the Netherlands and Germany. Translation is a very apt word in the business of bio-inspired design and it is a key step in any design process. A designer or an engineer or a scientist will eventually have to translate something, whether it is an idea into a drawing, a set of specifications into a object, or a hypothesis into an experiment.
Innovation itself might be approached formally in this way, crossing boundaries in a comprehensive and divergent way in order to conjure new ideas.
In this issue, the foremost popularizer of biomimicry, Janine Benyus, tells us of the accomplishments and offerings of her organization, Biomimicry 3. Along her path, translation has been a very important task, as she first translated the work of scattered scientists for the general public, and then translated some of the lessons from nature to the professionals in the design and business fields.
Artist Lisa Frank translates biological ideas into her personal revelation and shares the experience of these ideas with the public. Translation is facilitated by understanding the professional landscape: who the actors are and how they relate to each other. To that end, we. Translation also requires a common understanding amongst the various disciplines involved. The bio-design field is a wide one, growing rapidly and being pursued by people with many different backgrounds.
For many, the work is currently a practice rather than a profession, and they are content to look to more traditional fields for their standards and career advancements.
There is important work to be done to increase the maturity of our field and ensure that a similar quality of professionalism is practiced.
The article includes a proposal for a workshop to begin building a consensus on the core elements of research and practice that will support the emergence of a credible and recognized discipline. Janine Benyus in conversation with Megan Schuknecht. Pacific studying corals when he put two ideas He was particularly surprised by the statistics together. The results were two products and showing the costs of bone fractures to patients three companies that would add greatly to our and hospitals.
He lous generation of baby boomers reached ad- would later be a Fulbright scholar at the Weisvanced age. Stephen Weiner, and his mentor, Dr. Heinz Lowenstam, considered the The current practices that orthopedic surgeons father of the study of biomineralization. His dishad for managing osteoporotic fractures apsertation had addressed three aspects of scleracpeared less than adequate, especially since most tinian, or stony, reef building corals: their strucpatients had poor quality bone in the first place ture and mechanical performance; their process that was not amenable to affixing the orthopedof skeletal formation; and how they produced ic pins, plates, and screws that would allow the their skeletons.
Patients were usually immobile for weeks due to marginal fracture fixation techThe Inspiration niques. Because they were elderly, many were susceptible to extensive morbidity and eventual The animals that make up corals are anthozoans, death, at a very high cost to society.
Bone graft a class of invertebrate within the phylum Cnireplacements at the time were solid blocks or daria, which includes a diverse assortment of granules used as defect fillers and were made creatures like jellies, hydroids, and sea anem-.
Biomineralization A biomineral means a mineral produced by a living organism, but it also means that such a substance is likely to be combined in a composite with organic proteins like collagen or carbohydrates like chitin and be different itself in structure and composition than a mineral produced by inorganic chemistry. One of the remarkable aspects of biogenic minerals is the variety of intricate forms made of crystals; completely controlled by genetic information, faithfully replicated generation after generation, and often beyond our technical prowess to mimic.
Organisms from many different phyla have evolved to produce minerals since the end of the Precambrian Age, some million years ago. Algae, diatoms, marine invertebrates and vertebrates like humans all have acquired the capacity to make minerals.
To date, approximately 64 different minerals are known to have been produced by living organisms. Wilson, Wikimedia Commons. In this mostly marosis, bone breakage and the challenges to imine and entirely carnivorous club you can either mobilize these difficult to manage fractures.
The float or anchor yourself to a surface, and many creatures he was studying seemed to offer a prodo both within their lifespan. The corals have a cess that might aid medical procedures. Why not symbiotic relationship with algae, which occupy mimic the way corals quickly produce skeletal their stomach lining giving the tissue its color minerals right inside the patient and patch up and produce sugars in exchange for protection the bone fractures in place with this natural and the nutritious waste from the polyps.
The basic materials were similar; the When corals anchor themselves, they do so as process promised to be quicker and less invasive, attached polyps in large colonies, and they do it and no one had thought of this before.
The Great Barrier Reef along tion seemed a good fit. Constantz of reef and atoll formation, which preceded the thought he could harness this capacity more Theory of Evolution and also stemmed from the directly by what he had learned of the detailed Voyage of the Beagle, still remains the dominchemistry of coral biomineralization, for he had ant explanation for these massive structures, made a key discovery: the Golgi bodies within the largest biological structures on Earth.
It was then that he blastic ectodermis of its lower body to form a had a vision of seeding these crystals to initiate partitioned cup around the living creature. The mineral formation in the form of a cement. Later cup is made up of upwardly radiating fiber bun- he would see it as a method to hold an osteodles intergrown below the soft tissue. In all cases the concentration of minerals is affecting the morphology of the organism and likely serving a successful function, typically in mechanical support, defense or feeding.
For example, the spicules on an echinoderm like the sea star. Some functional structures are quite specialized, such as the concentration of minerals used as magnetic sensors in some magnetotactic bacteria. This biogenic process is happening primarily at the cellular level.
The methods used to make these minerals can be grouped into two main types based on the degree of control by the organism. The two types are biologically induced mineralization and biologically controlled mineralization. In the first, the organism induces the manufacture of crystalline material, but does not control the type or location. In the second, the organism does control these aspects Scanning Electronic micrography of deproteinized trabecular bone [x magnification] Photo: Sbertazzo, Wikimedia Commons.
When the National Science Foundation grant bonate and a sodium phosphate solution into a which had funded his PhD research dried up, he damaged bone created a clinically effective cegained a postdoc position at the U. Geological ment, allowing patients at Massachusetts GenSurvey with Dr. The name Norian itrepair, and was revolutionary as a load-bearself suggests the interdisciplinary nature of the ing scaffold for new bone growth. Since bone inventor and his idea. It mimogs of seed crystals in order to form synthetic icked the lattice disorder and impurities found in bone in situ as a standard orthopedic proced- the mineral phase of natural bone and, most imure for fracture fixation, especially osteopor- portantly, the solubility of the natural material.
If orthopedic surgeons clasts, to tunnel through the material using carcould use the mineralizing cement to stabilize a bonic acid, followed by other bone forming cells, reduced fracture and allow early loading, then osteoblasts, to spread its capillaries and reform they could avoid the prolonged postoperative Haversian systems within the cement implant, immobilization typically occuring after margin- thus making the material alive with nutrients ally successful, risky, painful and invasive pro- and cells.
In effect, the injected calcium phoscedures like rigid internal fixation with exces- phate formed a composite with new natural sive metallic hardware. By the Norian team bone. It was the most achieving a final strength of around 55 Megacited journal article in Science that year and it Pascals MPa , with a tensile strength of over 2 showed how injecting a paste of monocalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, calcium car-.
Humans perform this when they form teeth and bones, as do mollusks and the scleractinian corals studied by Constantz. In general, cells form the minerals within and then transport them through the cell to an outer surface. The transport methods may be passive diffusion through a membrane, active pumping or secretion with or without some containment vessel.
Where the mineral ends up can also vary; it can be on the outer surface of the same cell, on another cell or group of cells. It may finally reside on an intricate matrix of proteins, polysaccharides or glycoproteins that have been secreted by epithelial tissue.
MegaPascals MPa. This was better than cancel- His first company, Norian, was acquired by lous bone in compressive strength and compar- Synthes of Davos, Switzerland in , which able in tensile strength.
The two Constantz is quick to cite the critical participacompanies have a long-term supply agreement tion of Professor Dennis Cater, a biomechanical whereby Kensey Nash will manufacture the engineer at Stanford, and Dr.
Harry Skinner of Norian products, and Synthes will exclusively the University of California, San Francisco, startdistribute the products worldwide. Skinner was a reconstructive orthopedic surgeon and had been trained in ceramics so was familiar with the germane maThe Problem 2 terial properties. He was also the Chairman of the surgical device panel of the American Col- In , Constantz and members of the former lege of Surgeons and was a professor in the de- Norian team continued to make refinements to partment of orthopedic surgery at UCSF from the initial product, and his cross-disciplinary ca until and UC Irvine from to He strength.
There are a great variety of techniques. Biomineralization is of great interest because of the lessons it can impart about material strength and durability, ease of manufacture, and self-organization. Natural organisms can form these minerals relatively cheaply, in an aqueous environment, free of high pressure, heat or toxic substances. Finally, many of the techniques of nucleation and precipitation have potential applications in manufacturing at the nanoscale. Cancellous or spongy bone occurs at the ends of long bones beneath joint surfaces, such as at the wrist, hip and knee.
SKaffold can be either injected during surgery or applied by hand to voids in bone and sets in He credits his training under Jim Valentine, an a matter of minutes and cures in 72 hours.
It evolutionist at the University of California Santa can be drilled soon after setting. Like the first Barbara, for his approach. The material is, of course, biocompatible and He also believes that cross-training is essen- remodels via cell-mediated processes in a mechtial to performing innovative work.
Referring to anical stress-directed fashion. For example, radioloDr. Duran Yetkinler, its president, said that SKafgists who were using our bone cement started fold has seen steadily growing use in specialized to inject barium into it in order to track it and orthopedic surgery cases over the last 10 years.
This time he teamed up with several StanThe Results ford colleagues among them Dr. Tom Fogarty, the inventor of the embolectomy catheter. The The team was able to integrate this chemcompany was formed to address the problem istry into the formula for the cement, and this of pathological calcification in the cardiovascuformed the basis for a new company, Skeletal lar system.
Here, there is a mineral buildup on Kinetics. Skeletal Kinetics LLC, develops, manuthe sides of the vascular vessel and this buildup factures and markets SKaffold, a proprietary calreduces the normal flow of blood. In advanced cium phosphate bone void filler and autograft cases this can lead to heart attacks, or in the case extender. The product is designed for use in reof diabetics, the loss of legs.
Light micrograph of cancellous bone showing its bony trabeculae pink and marrow tissue grey. It typically uses a mild acid carbonic acid to dissolve the mineral phase of bone. Second, he then learned that the mineral phase of bone was an exact match chemically to the calcium collecting on blood vessels and causing the medical problems. Third, he learned that vascular material, such as forms the linings of blood vessels, was insoluble in acid.
He reasoned, therefore, that the same treatment that the body used to rid itself of excess minerals in bone could be used to rid itself of calcification in its vascular vessels without harming the vessels themselves. The Results Corazon Technologies, Inc.
The company was able to develop a process in which mild acid is injected into vascular vessels in order to dissolve and flush out the offending calcification. Some Common Elements for Product Development The development of these products shared several common threads: First, the conceptual ideas were based on a detailed knowledge of the process of biomineralization.
This knowledge was the result of intensive and primary study of one particular organism, corals, but general conclusions were also induced.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Fully Integrated Fluorescence Biosensors On-Chip Employing Multi-Functional Nanoplasmonic Optical Structures in CMOS Abstract: Integrated optical system-on-chip in silicon operating in the visible range can have a tremendous impact on enabling new applications in sensing and imaging through the ultra-miniaturization of complex optical instrumentation. CMOS technology has allowed an integration of optical detection circuitry for image sensors with massively large number of pixels.
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In biology , developmental bioelectricity refers to the regulation of cell , tissue , and organ-level patterning and behavior as the result of endogenous electrically mediated signaling. Cells and tissues of all types use ion fluxes to communicate electrically. The charge carrier in bioelectricity is the ion charged atom , and an electric current and field is generated whenever a net ion flux occurs. Endogenous electric currents and fields , ion fluxes, and differences in resting potential across tissues comprise an ancient and highly conserved communicating and signaling system. It functions alongside in series and in parallel to biochemical factors, transcriptional networks, and other physical forces to regulate the cell behavior and large-scale patterning during embryogenesis , regeneration , cancer , and many other processes. Developmental bioelectricity is a sub-discipline of biology, related to, but distinct from, neurophysiology and bioelectromagnetics. Developmental bioelectricity refers to the endogenous ion fluxes, transmembrane and transepithelial voltage gradients, and electric currents and fields produced and sustained in living cells and tissues.
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After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the following learning objectives:. No part of this book may be. Violators will be prosecuted. Learning from Mistakes.
So far we have look at different ways to represent either a phasor algebra pdf book rotating vector or a stationary vector using complex numbers to define a point on the complex plane. Phasor notation is the process phasor algebra pdf book of constructing a single complex number that has the amplitude and the phase angle of the given sinusoidal waveform. Et a electric circuits laboratory lab 9 ac circuits and phasor algebra objective: measure the ac voltages with an oscilloscope and verify the phase relationships between voltages in a ac circuit using phasor algebra.
Calcium phosphate CaP bioceramics are widely used in the field of bone regeneration, both in orthopedics and in dentistry, due to their good biocompatibility, osseointegration and osteoconduction. The aim of this article is to review the history, structure, properties and clinical applications of these materials, whether they are in the form of bone cements, paste, scaffolds, or coatings. Major analytical techniques for characterization of CaPs, in vitro and in vivo tests, and the requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration FDA and international standards from CaP coatings on orthopedic and dental endosseous implants, are also summarized, along with the possible effect of sterilization on these materials. CaP coating technologies are summarized, with a focus on electrochemical processes. Theories on the formation of transient precursor phases in biomineralization, the dissolution and reprecipitation as bone of CaPs are discussed.
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Неудачный выбор места, - прокомментировал Смит. - Халохот думал, что поблизости никого. Халохот какое-то время наблюдал за происходящим, потом скрылся за деревьями, по-видимому, выжидая. - Сейчас произойдет передача, - предупредил Смит. - В первый раз мы этого не заметили.
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У немца. Его взял немец. Дэвид почувствовал, как пол уходит у него из-под ног.
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