File Name: history and theory of urban planning master of architecture book .zip
The Planetizen 20 features the all-time top 20 planning titles that every planner should read.
This article delineates the history of urban planning , a technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation and distribution networks.
This article consists of two parts. The first part suggests a typology for urban design theories in order to provide a new way of understanding the nature and function of the, seemingly opposing, debates existing in the field. This typology is based on distinguishing between subjects, object and knowledge of urban design. In the second part, the typology is applied to the shared body of knowledge. In order to do so, this article attempts to give an overview of the current shared body of knowledge in the field of urban design.
Urban planning , design and regulation of the uses of space that focus on the physical form, economic functions, and social impacts of the urban environment and on the location of different activities within it. Because urban planning draws upon engineering , architectural , and social and political concerns, it is variously a technical profession, an endeavour involving political will and public participation, and an academic discipline.
Increasingly, the technology of geographic information systems GIS has been used to map the existing urban system and to project the consequences of changes. In the late 20th century the term sustainable development came to represent an ideal outcome in the sum of all planning goals. The modern origins of urban planning lie in a social movement for urban reform that arose in the latter part of the 19th century as a reaction against the disorder of the industrial city.
Many visionaries of the period sought an ideal city, yet practical considerations of adequate sanitation, movement of goods and people, and provision of amenities also drove the desire for planning. Contemporary planners seek to balance the conflicting demands of social equity , economic growth , environmental sensitivity, and aesthetic appeal. The result of the planning process may be a formal master plan for an entire city or metropolitan area , a neighbourhood plan, a project plan, or a set of policy alternatives.
Successful implementation of a plan usually requires entrepreneurship and political astuteness on the part of planners and their sponsors, despite efforts to insulate planning from politics. Urban planning emerged as a scholarly discipline in the s. In Great Britain the first academic planning program began at the University of Liverpool in , and the first North American program was established at Harvard University in It is primarily taught at the postgraduate level, and its curriculum varies widely from one university to another.
Some programs maintain the traditional emphasis on physical design and land use; others, especially those that grant doctoral degrees, are oriented toward the social sciences. Most degree programs in urban planning consist principally of applied courses on topics ranging from environmental policy to transportation planning to housing and community economic development.
Early examples of efforts toward planned urban development include orderly street systems that are rectilinear and sometimes radial; division of a city into specialized functional quarters; development of commanding central sites for palaces, temples, and civic buildings; and advanced systems of fortification, water supply , and drainage.
Most of the evidence is in smaller cities that were built in comparatively short periods as colonies. Often the central cities of ancient states grew to substantial size before they achieved governments capable of imposing controls. For several centuries during the Middle Ages , there was little building of cities in Europe. Eventually towns grew up as centres of church or feudal authority, of marketing or trade.
As the urban population grew, the constriction caused by walls and fortifications led to overcrowding, the blocking out of air and light, and very poor sanitation.
Certain quarters of the cities, either by custom or fiat, were restricted to different nationalities, classes, or trades, as still occurs in many contemporary cities of the developing world. The physical form of medieval and Renaissance towns and cities followed the pattern of the village, spreading along a street or a crossroads in circular patterns or in irregular shapes, though rectangular patterns tended to characterize some of the newer towns.
As the population of the city grew, walls were often expanded, but few cities at the time exceeded a mile in length. Paris and Venice were exceptions, reaching , Conscious attempts to plan cities reemerged in Europe during the Renaissance. Although these efforts partly aimed at improving circulation and providing military defense, their prime objective was often the glorification of a ruler or a state. From the 16th century to the end of the 18th, many cities were laid out and built with monumental splendour.
The result may have pleased and inspired the citizens, but it rarely contributed to their health, to the comfort of their homes, or to efficiency in manufacturing, distribution, and marketing.
The New World absorbed the planning concepts of European absolutism to only a limited degree. More influential on the layout of U. This plan traveled west with the pioneers, since it was the simplest method of dividing surveyed territory.
Although it took no cognizance of topography , it facilitated the development of land markets by establishing standard-sized lots that could be easily bought and sold—even sight unseen. In much of the world, city plans were based on the concept of a centrally located public space.
The plans differed, however, in their prescriptions for residential development. In the United States the New England town grew around a central commons ; initially a pasture, it provided a focus of community life and a site for a meetinghouse, tavern, smithy, and shops and was later reproduced in the central squares of cities and towns throughout the country. Also from the New England town came the tradition of the freestanding single-family house that became the norm for most metropolitan areas.
The central plaza, place, or square provided a focal point for European city plans as well. In contrast to American residential development, though, European domestic architecture was dominated by the attached house, while elsewhere in the world the marketplace or bazaar rather than an open space acted as the cynosure of cities.
Courtyard-style domiciles characterized the Mediterranean region, while compounds of small houses fenced off from the street formed many African and Asian settlements. See atrium. Urban planning Article Media Additional Info.
Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. National Geographic - Urban Planning. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Susan S. Author of The City Builders and others. Co-editor of The Tourist City and others. See Article History. Alternative Titles: city planning, town planning, urban design. Learn about the German development project known as HafenCity Hamburg, an example of urban planning.
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Urban planning , design and regulation of the uses of space that focus on the physical form, economic functions, and social impacts of the urban environment and on the location of different activities within it. Because urban planning draws upon engineering , architectural , and social and political concerns, it is variously a technical profession, an endeavour involving political will and public participation, and an academic discipline. Increasingly, the technology of geographic information systems GIS has been used to map the existing urban system and to project the consequences of changes. In the late 20th century the term sustainable development came to represent an ideal outcome in the sum of all planning goals. The modern origins of urban planning lie in a social movement for urban reform that arose in the latter part of the 19th century as a reaction against the disorder of the industrial city. Many visionaries of the period sought an ideal city, yet practical considerations of adequate sanitation, movement of goods and people, and provision of amenities also drove the desire for planning. Contemporary planners seek to balance the conflicting demands of social equity , economic growth , environmental sensitivity, and aesthetic appeal.
The overarching pedagogical agenda for second semester is to expand upon the design methodologies developed in the first semester such that students acquire an understanding…. Department of Architecture. Core Studio.
The Planetizen 20 features the all-time top 20 planning titles that every planner should read.
Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities , towns , and villages and planning for the provision of municipal services to residents and visitors. Although it deals with issues of a larger scale than architecture , it cannot be understood as a wholly separated field of research and design, since the quality of one depends on the quality of the other. In fact, it is this very interdependency , which has been termed relational design  by Barcelona -based architect Enric Massip-Bosch, which makes urban design and architecture inextricably linked in many university education programs, especially in Europe. This tendency towards reintegration in architectural studies is also gaining momentum in the USA. Urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, infrastructure, streets, and public spaces , entire neighbourhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the goal of making urban environments that are equitable , beautiful, performative, and sustainable.
The studio sequence runs adjacent to a number of required and elective courses that develop skills in spatial analysis, critical thinking, research methods, and visualization techniques—and that enable students to rigorously propose urban change in any number of capacities. Elective courses, encouraged at GSAPP and other schools at the university, address the specific and varied problems, facets, and processes of urbanization—from human rights to agricultural policy to systems of finance. Throughout the interwoven studio-seminars sequence, projects emphasize a multi-scalar approach to site and program, embracing local, regional, and global scales and advancing the role of the urban designer as a thoughtful practitioner entangled with a diverse set of actors and existing conditions, and crucial to the implementation of imagined futures. The Summer semester consists of four courses that operate intellectually and methodologically as an integrated curriculum focusing on the New York metropolitan region. All work is based on the coordinated learning of concepts, working methods, historical precedents, research protocols, and representational strategies.
The design disciplines - Architecture and Interior Design - teach us to understand and to shape the spaces in which we live: rooms, buildings, and cities. These disciplines are old, being among the first activities of civilization itself. They are also new, requiring advanced knowledge and skills to serve contemporary societies.